# Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering By Dr. A. K. Verma, Rahul Verma

₹540.00

By **Dr. A. K. Verma, Rahul Verma**

1^{st} Edition 2021

ISBN : 9789385039515

Binding : Paperback

Pages : 576 + 16 = 592

Size (mm) : 235 × 28 × 170

Weight : 870 g

## Description

This book presents the basic principles involved in analysis and design in the field of * Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering* written in a simple manner. The subject matter is characterized by comprehensive as well as methodical, easy-to-follow style and canvassed along with theory, variety of examples and useful tables. Each topic of the book has been arranged in such a way that reader is empowered with an in-depth knowledge of the subject. Latest Codes of Indian Standards have been applied for solving the problems.

*The outline of the book is as mentioned below:*

**Chapter 1** through **4** deal with the basic soil characteristics and its classification.

**Chapter 5** discusses clay mineralogy and soil structures.

**Chapter 6** and **7** deal with hydraulic characteristics of the soil i.e., effective stress, capillarity and permeability as well as seepage through soils.

**Chapter 8** discusses the stress distribution in soils due to surface loads.

**Chapter 9** through **13** deal with the shearing strength and its applications such as soil compaction, shear strength of soils, arching in soils and braced cuts, lateral earth pressure and stability of slopes.

**Chapter 14** discusses the compressibility characteristics of the soils and consolidation.

**Chapter 15** through **17** deal with the foundation analysis and design of shallow and deep foundation including advanced topics, which will be useful not only to under graduate students but to post graduation students and consultants.

**Chapter 18** deals with the topic of flexible retaining structures and cofferdams.

**Chapter 19** focuses on geosynthetics: application and design.

**Chapter 20** gives an overview of laboratory experiments and insight into construction field equipment.

At the end Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) have been given as Appendix which cover the entire syllabus of Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering.

**Salient features of the book:**

*** 384 Neatly drawn self explanatory sketches**

*** 135 Useful tables**

*** 165 Typical solved examples**

*** 151 Questions at the end of the chapters**

*** 19 Laboratory experiments.**

The book in the present form will prove to be extremely useful to the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering and Architecture of all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S., and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also be an immense use to practicing Civil Engineers.

## Additional information

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Valuation of Real Properties By Rangwala | 978-93-85039-51-5 |

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## Content

1 : INTRODUCTION

2 : BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND INTERRELATIONS

3 : INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILS AND CLASSIFICATION TESTS

4 : CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS

5 : CLAY MINERALOGY AND SOIL STRUCTURES

6 : EFFECTIVE STRESS, CAPILLARITY AND PERMEABILITY

7 : SEEPAGE THROUGH SOILS

8 : STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN SOILS DUE TO SURFACE LOADS

9 : SOIL COMPACTION

10 : SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS

11 : ARCHING IN SOILS AND BRACED CUTS

12 : LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE

13 : STABILITY OF SLOPES

14 : COMPRESSIBILITY OF SOILS AND CONSOLIDATION

15 : SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS AND BEARING CAPACITY

16 : PILE FOUNDATION

17 : WELL FOUNDATIONS

18 : FLEXIBLE RETAINING STRUCTURES AND COFFERDAMS

19 : GEOSYNTHETICS: APPLICATION AND DESIGN

20 : LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND

FIELD EQUIPMENT

APPENDIX A

INDEX

## Details Content

**CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION**

1-1. Geotechnical engineering

1-2. History of Development

1-3. Field of geotechnical Engineering

1-4. Soil formation and soil types

Transported soils are further classified according to the

transporting agency and method of deposition

Some of the typical soils that

we come across are as follows

Exercises 1

**CHAPTER 2 BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND INTERRELATIONS**

2-1. Soil Mass

2-2. Soil Mass as Three Phase System

2-3. Soil Mass as Two Phase System

2-4. Basic Terms and Definitions

(1) Void ratio, e

(2) Porosity, n

(3) Degree of saturation, sr

(4) Air content, ac

(5) Percentage air voids, na

2-5. Water content, w

2-6. Unit weight and densities

(1) Unit weight of water, gw

(2) Bulk/total unit weight, gt

(3) Dry unit weight, gd

(4) Saturated unit weight, gsat

(5) Submerged unit weight, g¢

(6) Unit weight of soil solid, gs

2-7. Specific gravity, G

(1) Specific gravity of soil particles

(2) Specific gravity of soil mass, Gm

2-8. Functional Relationship

(1) Relation between e and n

(2) Relation between e, Sr, w and G

(3) Relation between gt, gd and w

(4) Expression for gt, gd gsat, and g¢

(5) Expression for gd in

terms of na, G, gw and w

2-9. Typical examples based on three phase diagram

Exercises 2

**CHAPTER 3 INDEX PROPERTIES OF SOILS AND
CLASSIFICATION TESTS**

3-1. Introduction

3-2. Specific Gravity

3-3. Water Content

(1) Oven-drying method

(2) Pycnometer method

(3) Rapid method

3-4. Size and Shape of Soil Particles

3-4-1. Sieve Analysis

3-4-2. Sedimentation Analysis/

Wet-Mechanical Analysis

3-5. Consistency Of Clays: Atterberg Limits

3-6. Significance of other Soil Aggregate Properties

(1) Permeability

(2) Unconfined compressive strength

(3) Sensitivity and thixotropy

(4) Void ratio, porosity, unit weight

(5) Relative density or density index

(6) Activity of soils

(7) Specific surface

(8) Collapsible soil

Exercises 3

**CHAPTER 4 CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS**

4-1. Introduction

4-2. Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

(1) Coarse grained soils

(2) Fine grained soils

4-3. Aashto Soil classification system

(1) General

(2) Classification procedure

(3) Organic Soils

4-4. Indian standard soil classification system

4-5. Application of soil classification

4-6. Textural classification of soils

4-7. Limitations of uscs and isscs

4-8. Typical examples of classification of soils

Exercises 4

References 4

**CHAPTER 5 CLAY MINERALOGY AND SOIL STRUCTURES**

5-1. Introduction

5-2. Clay minerals

5-2-1. Atomic bonds

(1) Primary valence bonds or ionic bonds

(2) Secondary valence bonds

5-2-2. Structure of clay minerals

(1) Tetrahedral or silica sheet

(2) Octahedral or alumina sheet

5-2-3. Isomorphous Substitution

(1) Kaolinite

(2) Montmorillonite

(3) Illite

5-3. Clay – water relations

(1) Adsorbed water

(2) Base (cation) exchange capacity

5-4. Clay particle interaction

5-5. Soil structure and fabric

5-6. Granular soil fabric

Exercises 5

References 5

**CHAPTER 6 EFFECTIVE STRESS,
CAPILLARITY AND PERMEABILITY**

6-1. Introduction

6-2. Principle of effective stress

6-3. Physical meaning of effective stress

6-4. Capillarity in soils

6-5. Permeability of soils

(1) Basic concept of fluid flow — Darcy’s law

(2) Measurement of permeability

6-6. Factors affecting permeability

(1) Factors affecting permeability

(2) Permeability of stratified soils

6-7. Types of head, seepage forces and

quick sand condition

(1) Hydrodynamic case — flow condition

(2) Hydrostatic case (No flow condition)

(3) Downward flow

(4) Upward flow (fig. 6-17)

(5) Quick sand condition

6-8. Typical examples on effective stress, capillarity and

permeability

Exercises 6

**CHAPTER 7 SEEPAGE THROUGH SOILS**

7-1. Introduction

7-2. Two–Dimensional Flow — Laplace’s Equation

7-3. Flow nets

7-4. Properties and uses of a Flow Net

(1) Seepage calculation

(2) Uplift pressure

(3) Exit gradient and piping

(4) Pore – Water pressure

(5) Methods for obtaining flow nets

7-5. Unconfined flow

7-6. Seepage in anisotropic conditions

7-7. Flow through non-homogeneous sections

7-8. Prevention of erosion — protective filters

7-9. Typical examples of seepage through soils

Exercises 7

**CHAPTER 8 STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN
SOILS DUE TO SURFACE LOADS**

8-1. Introduction

8-2. Boussinesq’s Equation

8-3. Vertical Stress Distribution Diagram

(1) Vertical stress isobar diagram

(2) Vertical stress distribution on a horizontal plane (Fig. 8-2)

(3) Vertical stress distribution on a vertical line (Fig. 8-2)

8-4. Vertical Stress Beneath Loaded Areas

(1) Line load

(2) Strip load

(3) Uniformly loaded circular area

(4) Uniformly loaded rectangular area

(5) Long embankment loading

(6) Uniform load on an annular area (Ring foundation)

8-5. Influence Chart (Newmark’s Chart)

8-6. Approximate Stress Distribution Methods for Loaded Area

(1) Equivalent point load method

(2) Two to one method

8-7. Westergaard’s Equation

8-8. Typical examples of Vertical stresses below applied loads

8-9. Contact Pressure

8-10. Typical example on stress distribution in soils due to surface loads

Exercises 8

**CHAPTER 9 SOIL COMPACTION**

9-1. Introduction

9-2. Laboratory tests

9-3. Factors AFFECTING compaction

(1) Water content

(2) Type of soil

(3) Method of compaction

(4) Compactive effort

(5) Use of admixture

9-4. Structure and engineering behaviour of compacted cohesive soils

(1) Structure

(2) Permeability

(3) Compressibility

(4) Swelling

(5) Shrinkage

(6) Stress-strain relationship

(7) Pore water pressure

9-5. Compaction in the Field

9-6. Compaction Specifications and Field Control

9-7. Typical examples of soil compaction

Exercises 9

**CHAPTER 10 SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS**

10-1. Introduction

10-2. Stress At point – mohr’s circle of stress

10-3. Mechanism of shear resistance

10-4. Mohr-coulomb’s failure criterion

(1) Concept of failure in soils

(2) Mohr’s failure criterion and Mohr’s failure hypothesis

(3) Coulomb’s equation and Mohr-Coulomb’s criterion

10-5. Measurement of shear strength

(1) Direct shear test

(2) Triaxial Test

(3) Unconfined compression test

(4) Vane shear test

(5) Special shear test

10-6. Shear strength of clayey soils

(1) Untrained strength from UU Test

(2) Consolidated undrained strength from CU test

(3) Consolidated drained strength test

(4) Shear strength – a unique function of effective stress

(5) Comparison of the results of CU and CD tests

(6) Stress-strain and volume change relationships

(7) Effect of strain rate

10-7. Shear strength of sands

(1) Behaviour of saturated sands under undrained conditions

(2) Factor affecting angle of shearing resistance

(3) Angle of repose

(4) Effect of moisture

(5) Effect of intermediate principal stress

10-8. Drainage conditions and strength parameters

10-9. Stress paths

10-10. Pore pressure parameters

10-11. Elastic properties of soil

(1) Modulus of elasticity

(2) Poisson’s ratio, m

(3) Shear modulus, G

10-12. Typical Examples of shear strength of soils

Exercises 10

**CHAPTER 11 ARCHING IN SOILS AND BRACED CUTS**

11-2. Cain’s theory

11-3. Tunnels through sand

11-4. Braced excavations

11-5. Earth pressure against bracing in cuts

11-6. Heave of the bottom of cut in soft clays

11-7. Strut loads

11-8. Deep cuts — apparent earth pressure diagram

11-9. Typical examples of Vertical stresses below applied loads

Exercises 11

**CHAPTER 12 LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE**

12-1. Introduction

12-2. Types of lateral earth pressure

12-3. Earth pressure at rest

12-4. Earth pressure theories

12-5. Rankine’s theory

12-5-1. Plastic equilibrium of soil — Active andpassive rankine states

12-5-2. Active earth pressure of cohesionless soil

12-5-3. Passive earth pressure of cohesionless soil

12-6. Coulomb’s earth pressure theory or coulomb’s Wedge theory

12-6-1. Active state

12-6-2. Passive state

12-7. Culmann’s graphical method for

active pressure for cohesionless soil

12-8. Rebhann’s graphical method for active thrust

12-9. Active earth pressure of cohesive soils (Rankine’s theory)

12-10. Passive earth pressure: Rankine’s theory

(1) Cohesionless backfill

(2) Cohesive backfill

(3) Sloping backfill

12-11. Typical problems of lateral earth pressure

Exercises 12

**CHAPTER 13 STABILITY OF SLOPES**

13-1. Introduction

13-2. Stability analysis of infinite slopes in sand (Cohesionless soil)

13-3. Stability Analysis of Infinite slopes made of clay

13-4. Factor of safety

13-5. Stability Analysis of Finite slopes

13-6. The Swedish slip circle method (Fig. 13-8)

(1) fu = 0° analysis

(2) c-f analysis or method of slices

13-7. Method of locating critical slip circle (Fig. 13-12)

13-8. Stability of

side slopes of Earth dam

(1) Stability of down stream slope during steady seepage

(2) Stability of up stream slope during sudden draw down

(3) Stability of slopes immediately after construction

13-9. Friction circle method

13-10. Stability Analysis of a finite slope using Taylor stability

number

13-11. Bishop’s method of stability analysis

13-12. Typical examples of stability of slope (S.O.S.)

Exercises 13

**CHAPTER 14 COMPRESSIBILITY OF
SOILS AND CONSOLIDATION**

14-1. Introduction

14-2. The consolidation process: spring analogy

14-3. Consolidation of laterally confined soil

(1) Skempton (1944)

(2) Houge (1957)

14-4. Consolidation settlements, Sc

14-5. Soil condition with regard to its consolidation

(1) Normally consolidated (N.C.) soils

(2) Over consolidated/pre-consolidated (O.C.) soils

(3) Under consolidated (U.C.) soils

14-6. Determination of pre-consolidation or

over consolidation pressure, s¢p

14-7. Terzaghi’s theory of one-dimensional consolidation

14-8. Solution of the consolidation equation

14-9. Laboratory one dimensional consolidation test

14-10. Calculation of void ratio

14-10-1.Height of solid method

14-10-2.Change in void ratio method (Table 14-5)

14-11. Coefficient of volume change (mv)

14-12. Compression index (Cc)

14-13. Determination of coefficient of consolidation (Cv)

14-13-1.Square root of time fitting method

14-13-2.Logarithm of time fitting method

14-14. Determination of coefficient of permeability (k)

14-15. Secondary consolidation

14-16. Typical solved examples of compressibility of

soils and consolidation

Exercises 14

**CHAPTER 15 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS AND
BEARING CAPACITY**

BEARING CAPACITY

15-1. Introduction

(1) Strip footing or continuous footing

(2) Spread footing

(3) Raft or mat foundation

15-2. General requirement of foundations

(1) Shear failure criterion

(2) Settlement criterion

(3) Location and depth criterion

15-3. Terminology

15-4. Allowable Bearing Pressure for Safe Design

15-5. Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

(1) General shear failure (GSF)

(2) Local shear failure (LSF)

(3) Punching shear failure (PSF)

15-6. Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory

(1) Assumptions

(2) Local shear failure

(3) Effect of shapes

(4) Effect of water-table

(5) Skempton’s bearing capacity analysis for clayey soils

(6) Meyerhof’s analysis

(7) Hansen’s recommendations

(8) Vesic’s bearing capacity factor

(9) IS code recommendation for bearing capacity

(10) Two layered system

(11) Desiccated soil

(12) Bearing capacity of cohesionless soils based on

standard penetration test

For strip footings

For square and circular footings

(13) Bearing capacity of cohesionless soils from

static cone resistance

(14) Bearing capacity of footings on layered soils

(15) Factors affecting bearing capacity

(16) Presumptive bearing capacity

15-7. Settlement of Shallow Foundations

(1) Components of settlement

(2) Immediate or elastic settlement

Corrections to settlement due to consolidation

(3) Seat of settlement

(4) Settlement of foundations on granular soils

(5) Method based on static cone penetration test

(6) Allowable settlement

15-8. Allowable Bearing Pressure

(1) Granular soils

(2) Cohesive soils

15-9. Steps Involved in

Proportioning of Footings

15-10. Typical Examples on

Shallow Foundations and Bearing Capacity

Exercises 15

**CHAPTER 16 PILE FOUNDATION**

16-1. Introduction

16-2. Load transfer mechanism

16-3. Types of pile

16-3-1. Classification based on material and composition

16-3-2. Classification based on method of installation

(1) Driven piles

(2) Cast-in-situ piles

(3) Driven and Cast-in-situ piles

16-3-3. Classification based on

load transfer mechanism

(1) End-bearing piles

(2) Friction piles

(3) Tension or uplift piles

(4) Compaction piles

(5) Anchor piles

16-4. Piles subjected to vertical loads

16-4-1. Pile load carrying capacity based on static formula

(2) For non cohesive soil

Piles in stratified soil

16-4-2. Pile load carrying capacity based on

Dynamic formulae

(1) Engineering news formula

(2) Hiley’s formula

16-4-3. Pile loadss carrying capacity based on penetration test data

16-4-3-1. Pile load carrying capacity based on

standard penetration test N

(1) Piles in granular soils

(2) Piles in cohesive soils

16-4-3-2. Pile capacity based on static cone penetration test (SCPT)

or cone penetration test (CPT)

(1) Van Der Veen’s method for piles in cohesionless soil (1957)

(2) Schmertmann’s method for cohesionless and cohesive soils

16-4-4. Pile load test

16-5. Group action in piles

16-5-1. Efficiency of the pile group

16-5-2. Design of Pile Groups Pile group in cohesive soil bed

16-6. Negative skin friction

16-7. Settlement of pile and pile group

(1) Settlement of single pile embedded in sand

(2) Settlement of single pile embedded in clay

(3) Settlement of pile group is sand

(4) Settlement of pile groups in clay

16-8. Typical examples on pile foundation

16-8-1. Examples based on static formulae

16-8-2. Example based on dynamic formulae

16-8-3. Example based on penetration test data

16-9. Laterally loaded piles

16-10. Laterally loaded long piles embedded in cohesive soils

16-11. Ultimate lateral load analysis:

Broms’ method

(1) Short pile (embedded in sand) [Fig. 16-30(a)]

(2) Short Pile (embedded in clay) [Fig. 16-30(b)]

(3) Long pile in sand or clay

(2) Check for pile head defection

16-12. Allowable Lateral deflection of a pile

16-13. IS Code Method:

Lateral load carrying capacity of a pile

(1) For sand and normally consolidated clays

(2) For Preloaded clays or

over consolidated clays with constant soil modulus

(3) Calculation of deflection and moment in a long elastic pile

(4) Calculation of moment

16-14. Under-Reamed Pile

16-15. Load test on Under-reamed piles

16-16. Cyclic pile load test

16-17. Difference In Fixed Head And Free Head Pile

Exercises 16

**CHAPTER 17 WELL FOUNDATIONS**

17-1. Introduction

17-2. Various Types of Wells or Caissons

(1) Open caissons or well

(2) Box caissons

(3) Pneumatic caissons

17-3. Components of a Well Foundation

(1) Well-cap (5) Bottom plug

(2) Steining (6) Dredge hole

(3) Curb (7) Top plug

(4) Cutting edge

17-4. Requirement of Shapes of Wells

17-5. Depth of A Well Foundation

(1) Minimum grip length below the scour depth

(2) Base pressure within permissible limits

17-6. Forces Acting on a Well

17-7. Lateral Stability of Well Foundation

(1) Terzaghi’s analysis

(2) IRC method

(3) Elastic theory method

(4) Conditions of stability

(5) Ultimate soil resistance method

Base resisting moment, Mb

Side resisting moment, Ms

Friction resisting moment, Mf

17-8. Lateral Stability of a Heavy well

17-9. Sinking of a Well

(1) Controlled dredging

(2) Eccentric loading

(3) Pulling the well

(4) Pushing the well

(5) Water jetting and/or digging pit on the higher side

(6) Obstacles below the cutting edge and loading

17-10. Bearing capacity of a well

Exercises 17

**CHAPTER 18 FLEXIBLE RETAINING STRUCTURES AND
COFFERDAMS**

18-1. Introduction

18-2. Cantilever sheet pile wall

18-2-1. Cantilever sheet pile in granular soil Assumption

18-2-2. Cantilever sheet pile in

Granular soils — An Approximate Analysis

18-2-3. Cantilever sheet pile in cohesive soil ( fu = 0 Condition)

18-3. Anchored bulkhead

18-3-1. Free-earth support method

18-3-2. Fixed earth support method

Fixed earth support method for

designing the anchored bulkheads

18-4. Cofferdams

(1) Earth embankments

(2) Cantilever sheet pile

(3) Double wall cofferdams [Fig. 18-8(c)]

(4) Braced cofferdams

(5) Cellular cofferdams [Fig. 18-8(e)]

18-5. Typical Examples on flexible

retaining structures and cofferdams

Exercises 18

**CHAPTER 19 GEOSYNTHETICS: APPLICATION AND DESIGN**

19-1. Introduction

19-2. Types of Geosynthetic materials

19-2-1. Geotextile (GT)

(1) Woven geotextiles

(2) Nonwoven geotextiles

19-2-2. Geogrid (GG)

(1) Integral junction geogrids

(2) Fused junction geogrids

(3) Woven junction geogrids

19-2-3. Geonets (GN)

19-2-4. Geomembrane (GM)

19-2-5. Geosynthetic clay liner (GCL)

19-2-6. Geofoam 487

19-2-7. Geocell 487

19-2-8. Geocomposites

19-3. Geosynthetics functions

(1) Separation

(2) Reinforcement

(3) Filtration488

(4) Drainage 488

(5) Moisture barrier/containment

(6) Protection

(7) Stiffening

19-4. Application of geosynthetics and

controlling functions

19-5. Testing and evaluation of geosynthetics

19-6. Geosynthetic properties and

parameters

(1) Physical properties of geosynthetics

(2) Mechanical properties of geosynthetics

19-7. Reinforced earth wall (R.E. wall)

19-7-1. Advantages of R.E. walls

19-7-2. Analysis and Design of R.E. walls

Exercises 19

**CHAPTER 20 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND
FIELD EQUIPMENT**

20-1. Laboratory experiments

20-2. Field Equipment used in

geotechnical practices

(1) Tipper trucks (Fig. 20-2)

(2) Dump trucks (Fig. 20-3 and fig. 20-4)

(3) Concrete trucks/Transit mixers (Fig. 20-5)

(4) Crawler cranes for pile driving work

(Fig. 20-6, fig. 20-7 and fig. 20-8)

(6) Excavators (Fig. 20-9)

(7) Backhoe loaders (Fig. 20-10)

(8) Graders (Fig. 20-11)

(9) Skid steer loaders (Fig. 20-12)

Appendix A

INDEX

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