# Engineering Drawing By N. D. Bhatt

~~₹500.00~~ ₹450.00

By **N. D. Bhatt**

54^{th} Edition 2023 (Fifth Fourth)

ISBN : 9789385039706

Binding : Paperback

Pages : 704 + 16 = 720

Size (mm) : 235 × 27 × 170

Weight : 870 g

## Description

The book in its *fifty-fourth edition* provides all aspects and detailed study of Engineering Graphics or Engineering Drawing — Plane and Solid Geometry, a core subject for all branches of Engineering study, presented in a lucid manner and easy-to-follow style. The text-book follows the first-angle method of orthographic projection, however, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. The entire book is printed in two colour which enhance the utility of the book.

The subject matter has been arranged in 26 chapters such as • Drawing Instruments and Their Uses • Sheet Layout and Free-Hand Sketching • Lines, Lettering and Dimensioning • Scales • Geometrical Construction • Curves Used in Engineering Practice • Loci of Points • Orthographic Projection • Projections of Points • Projections of Straight Lines • Projections on Auxiliary Planes • Projections of Planes • Projections of Solids •Sections of Solids •Development of Surfaces • Intersection of Surfaces • Isometric Projection • Oblique Projection • Perspective Projection • Orthographic Reading and Conversion of Views •Centres of Gravity and Moments of Inertia of Areas • Nomography • Screw Threads • Screwed Fastenings • Riveted Joints and Welded Joints • Computer Aided Drafting (CADr).

Chapter 26 on Computer Aided Drafting (CADr) is entirely rewritten with inclusion of 50 self-interactive and self-learning practice modules.

As a novel pedagogical concept, 51 audiovisual animation modules are presented through web-portal for better visualization and understanding of the subject.

The solutions to exercises of Chapter 17, Isometric Projection and Chapter 20 Conversion of Views are given in this edition.

*The topics of the subject are covered in 26 well-arranged chapters — therein it now contains:*

*** 1617 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn diagrams**

*** 523 Worked examples (Problems)**

*** 900 Exercises at the end of chapters**

*** 34 Useful tables**

The book covers the syllabi in *Engineering Drawing* or *Engineering Graphics* as a core subject for Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses, I.T.I. as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.

## Additional information

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Old ISBN | 8185594015, 8185594171, 8185594317, 8185594511, 8185594589, 9789380358178, 9789380358550, 9789380358833, 9789380358963 |

## Content

1 : DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES

2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND FREE-HAND SKETCHING

3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING

4 : SCALES

5 : GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION

6 : CURVES USED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE

7 : LOCI OF POINTS

8 : ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

9 : PROJECTIONS OF POINTS

10 : PROJECTIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES

11 : PROJECTIONS ON AUXILIARY PLANES

12 : PROJECTIONS OF PLANES

13 : PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS

14 : SECTIONS OF SOLIDS

15 : DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES

16 : INTERSECTION OF SURFACES

17 : ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

18 : OBLIQUE PROJECTION

19 : PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

20 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING AND CONVERSION OF VIEWS

21 : CENTRES OF GRAVITY AND MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF AREAS

22 : NOMOGRAPHY

23 : SCREW THREADS

24 : SCREWED FASTENINGS

25 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS

26 : COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (CADr)

INDEX

## Details Content

**Chapter 1 DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES**

1-1. Introduction

1-2. Drawing board

1-3. T-square

1-4. Set-squares

1-5. Drawing instrument box

(1) Large-size compass with inter chang eable pencil and

pen legs

(2) Lengthening bar

(3) Small bow compass

(4) Large-size divider

(5) Small bow divider

(6) Small bow ink-pen

(7) Inking pen

1-6. Scales

1-7. Protractor

1-8. French curves

1-9. Drawing papers

1-10. Drawing pencils

1-11. Eraser (Rubber)

1-12. Drawing pins, Clips or adhesive tapes

1-13. Sand-paper block

1-14. Duster

1-15. Drafting machine

1-16. Roll-N-Draw

1-17. General suggestions for drawing a sheet

(1) Cleaning the instruments

(2) Pinning the paper to the drawing board

(3) Border lines

(4) Spacing of drawings

Exercises I

**Chapter 2 SHEET LAYOUT AND FREE-HAND SKETCHING**

2-1. Sheet layout

(1) Sheet sizes

(2) Margin

(3) Border lines

(4) Borders & frames

(5) Orientation mark

(6) Grid reference system

(7) Title block

(8) List of parts or the bill of materials

(9) Revisions of drawing

(10) Folding marks

(11) Scales and scale drawing

2-2. Types of machine drawings

(1) Production drawing

(2) Exploded assembly drawing

(3) Schematic assembly drawing

(4) Drawing for instruction manual

(5) Drawing for installation

(6) Drawing for catalogue

(7) Tabular drawing

(8) Patent drawing

2-3. Free-hand Sketching

(1) Sketching or freehand

(2) Sketching materials

(3) To sketch straight lines

(4) To sketch circles and arcs

(5) Sketching procedure

(6) Steps in sketching

Exercises II

**Chapter 3 LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING**

3-0. Introduction

3-1. Lines

(1) Line thickness

(2) Inked drawings

(3) Pencil drawings

3-1-1. Types of Lines

(1) Outlines

(2) Margin lines

(3) Dimension lines

(4) Extension or projection lines

(5) Construction lines

(6) Hatching or section lines

(7) Leader or pointer lines

(8) Border lines

(9) Short-break lines

(10) Long-break lines

(11) Hidden or dotted lines

(12) Centre lines

(13) Cutting-plane lines

(14) Chain thick

(15) Chain thick double-dots

3-2. Lettering

(1) Single-stroke letters

(2) Gothic letters

3-3. Dimensioning

3-4. Dimensioning terms and notations

(1) Dimension line

(2) Extension line

(3) Arrowhead

(4) Leader

3-5. Placing of dimensions

(1) Aligned system

(2) Unidirectional system

3-6. Unit of dimensioning

3-7. General rules for dimensioning

3-8. Practical hints on dimensioning

Exercises III

**Chapter 4 SCALES**

4-1. Introduction

4-2. Scales

(1) Engineer’s

(2) Graphical scale

(3) Representative fraction

4-3. Scales on drawings

4-4. Types of scales

(1) Plain scales

(2) Diagonal scales

(3) Comparative scales

(4) Vernier scales

(5) Scale of chords

Exercises IV

Chapter 5 GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION

5-0. Introduction

5-1. Bisecting a line

5-2. To draw perpendiculars

5-3. To draw parallel lines

5-4. To divide a line

5-5. To divide a circle

5-6. To bisect an angle

5-7. To trisect an angle

5-8. To find the centre of an arc

5-9. To construct an ogee or reverse curve

5-10. To construct equilateral triangles

ENGINEERING DRAWING

5-12. To construct regular polygons

5-13. Special methods of drawing regular polygons

5-14. Regular polygons inscribed in circles

5-15. To draw regular figures using T-square and set-squares

5-16. To draw tangents

5-17. Lengths of arcs

5-18. Circles and lines in contact

5-19. Inscribed circles

Exercises V

**Chapter 6 CURVES USED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE**

6-0. Introduction

6-1. Conic sections

6-1-1. Ellipse

6-1-2. Parabola

6-1-3. Hyperbola

6-1-4. Tangents and normals to conics

6-2. Cycloidal curves

6-2-1. Cycloid

6-2-2. Trochoid

6-2-3. Epicycloid and hypocycloid

6-2-4. Epitrochoid

6-2-5. Hypotrochoid

6-3. Involute

6-4. Evolutes

6-5. Spirals

6-5-1. Archemedian spiral

6-5-2. Logarithmic or equiangular spiral

6-6. Helix

6-6-1. A method of drawing a helical curve

6-6-2. Helical springs

6-6-3. Screw threads

6-6-4. Helix upon a cone

6-7. Cam

Exercises VI

**Chapter 7 LOCI OF POINTS**

7-0. Introduction

7-1. Loci of points

7-2. Simple mechanisms

7-2-1. The slider crank mechanism

(1) Simple slider crank mechanism

(2) Offset slider crank mechanism

7-2-2. A four-bar mechanism

Exercises VII

**Chapter 8 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION**

8-0. Introduction

8-1. Principle of projection

8-2. Methods of projection

8-3. Orthographic projection

8-4. Planes of projection

8-5. Four quadrants

8-6. First-angle projection

8-7. Third-angle projection

8-8. Reference line

8-9. B.I.S. code of practice

8-10. Typical Problems

Exercises VIII

**Chapter 9 PROJECTIONS OF POINTS**

9-0. Introduction

9-1. A point is situated in the first quadrant

9-2. A point is situated in the second quadrant

9-3. A point is situated in the third quadrant

9-4. A point is situated in the fourth quadrant

9-5. General conclusions

Exercises IX

**Chapter 10 PROJECTIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES**

10-0. Introduction

10-1. Line parallel to one or both the planes

10-2. Line contained by one or both the planes

10-3. Line perpendicular to one of the planes

10-4. Line inclined to one plane and parallel to the other

Exercises X(a)

10-5. Line inclined to both the planes

10-6. Projections of lines inclined to both the planes

10-7. Line contained by a plane perpendicular to both the reference

planes

10-8. True length of a straight line and its inclinations with the

reference planes

10-9. Traces of a line

10-10. Methods of determining traces of a line

10-11. Traces of a line, the projections of which are perpendicular

to xy

10-12. Positions of traces of a line

10-13. Additional illustrative problems

Exercises X(b)

**Chapter 11 PROJECTIONS ON AUXILIARY PLANES**

11-0. Introduction

11-1. Types of auxiliary planes and views

11-2. Projection of a point on an auxiliary plane

11-3. Projections of lines and planes by the use of auxiliary planes

11-4. To determine true length of a line

11-5. To obtain point-view of a line and edge-view of a plane

11-6. To determine true shape of a plane figure

Exercises XI

**Chapter 12 PROJECTIONS OF PLANES**

12-0. Introduction

12-1. Types of planes

(1) Perpendicular planes

(2) Oblique planes

12-2. Traces of planes

12-3. General conclusions

(1) Traces

(2) Projections

12-4. Projections of planes parallel to one of the reference planes

(1) When the plane is parallel to the H.P.

(2) When the plane is parallel to the V.P.

12-5. Projections of planes inclined to one reference plane and

perpendicular to the other

(1) Plane, inclined to the H.P. and perpendicular to the V.P.

(2) Plane, inclined to the V.P. & perpendicular to the H.P.

12-6. Projections of oblique planes

Exercises XII

**Chapter 13 PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDS**

13-0. Introduction

13-1. Types of solids

(1) Polyhedra

(2) Solids of revolution

13-2. Projections of solids in simple positions

Exercises XIII(i)

13-3. Projections of solids with axes inclined to one of the reference

planes and parallel to the other

13-3-1. Axis inclined to the V.P. and parallel to the H.P.

13-3-2. Axis inclined to the H.P. and parallel to the V.P.

13-4. Projections of solids with axes inclined to both the H.P. and

the V.P.

13-5. Projections of spheres

(1) Spheres in contact with each other

(2) Unequal spheres

Exercises XIII(ii)

**Chapter 14 SECTIONS OF SOLIDS**

(1) Section planes

(2) Sections

(3) True shape of a section

14-1. Sections of prisms

(1) Section plane parallel to the V.P.

(2) Section plane parallel to the H.P.

(3) Section plane perpendicular to the H.P. and inclined to

the V.P.

(4) Section plane perpendicular to the V.P. and inclined to

the H.P.

14-2. Sections of pyramids

(1) Section plane parallel to the base of the pyramid

(2) Section plane parallel to the V.P.

(3) Section plane perpendicular to the V.P. and inclined to

the H.P.

(4) Section plane perpendicular to the H.P. and inclined to

the V.P.

14-3. Sections of cylinders

(1) Section plane parallel to the base

(2) Section plane parallel to the axis

(3) Section plane inclined to the base

14-4. Sections of cones

(1) Section plane parallel to the base of the cone

(2) Section plane passing through the apex of the cone

(3) Section plane inclined to the base of the cone at an

angle smaller than the angle of inclination of the generators

with the base

(4) Section plane parallel to a generator of the cone

(5) Section plane inclined to the base of the cone at an

angle greater than the angle of inclination of the generators

with the base

14-5. Sections of spheres

(1) Section plane parallel to the H.P.

(2) Section plane parallel to the V.P.

(3) Section plane perpendicular to the V.P. and inclined to

the H.P.

(4) Section plane perpendicular to the H.P. and inclined to

the V.P.

14-6. Typical Problems of Sections of Solids

Exercises XIV

**Chapter 15 DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES**

15-0. Introduction

15-1. Methods of development

(1) Parallel-line development

(2) Radial-line development

(3) Triangulation development

(4) Approximate method

15-2. Developments of lateral surfaces of right solids

15-2-1. Cube

15-2-2. Prisms

15-2-3. Cylinders

15-2-4. Pyramids

15-2-5. Cone

15-3. Development of transition pieces

15-4. Spheres

Exercises XV

**Chapter 16 INTERSECTION OF SURFACES**

16-0. Introduction

16-1. Line of intersection

16-2. Methods of determining the line of intersection between

surfaces of two interpenetrating solids

(1) Line method

(2) Cutting-plane method

16-3. Intersection of two prisms

16-4. Intersection of cylinder and cylinder

16-5. Intersection of cylinder & prism

16-6. Intersection of cone & cylinder

16-7. Intersection of cone & prism

16-8. Intersection of cone and cone

16-9. Intersection of sphere and cylinder or prism

Exercises XVI

**Chapter 17 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION**

17-1. Introduction

17-2. Isometric axes, lines & planes

17-3. Isometric scale

17-4. Isometric drawing or isometric view

17-5. Isometric graph

17-6. Illustrative problems

17-6-1. Isometric drawing of planes or plane figures

17-6-2. Isometric drawing of prisms and pyramids

17-6-3. Isometric drawing of cylinders

17-6-4. Isometric drawing of cones

17-6-5. Isometric drawing of sphere

17-7. Typical problems of isometric drawing

Exercises XVII

Solutions to Exercises XVII

**Chapter 18 OBLIQUE PROJECTION **

18-1. Introduction

18-2. Principle of the oblique projection

18-3. The oblique projection and the isometric projection

18-4. Receding lines & receding angles

18-5. Types of the oblique projection

18-6. Rules for the choice of position of an object

18-7. Steps for drawing the oblique projection

18-8. Oblique drawing of pyramid

18-9. Oblique drawing of circle

(1) Offset method

(2) Four centre approximate method

18-10. Oblique drawing of cylinder

18-11. Oblique drawing of prism

18-12. Typical problems of oblique projection

Exercises XVIII

Chapter 19 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

19-1. Introduction

19-2. Principle of perspective projection

19-3. Definitions of perspective elements

(1) Ground plane

(2) Station point

(3) Picture plane

(4) Horizontal plane

(5) Auxiliiary ground plane

(6) Ground line

(7) Horizon line

(8) Perpendicular axis

(9) Centre of vision

(10) Central plane

19-4. Station point

19-5. Angle of vision

19-6. Picture plane

19-7. Methods of drawing perspective view

19-7-1. Visual-ray method

19-7-2. Vanishing-point method

19-8. Types of perspective

(1) Parallel perspective or one point perspective

(2) Angular perspective or two point perpective

(3) Oblique perspective or three point perspective

19-9. Distance points

19-10. Measuring line or line of heights

19-11. Perspectives of circles & solids

ENGINEERING DRAWING

19-12. Typical problems of perspective projection

(1) Visual-ray method – by means of the top view and the

front view

(2) Visual-ray method – by means of the top view and the

side view

(3) Vanishing-point method

Exercises XIX

**Chapter 20 ORTHOGRAPHIC READING AND CONVERSION
OF VIEWS**

20-1. Introduction

20-2. Reading of orthographic views (Blue-print reading)

20-3. Missing lines and missing views

20-4. Identification of planes

20-5. Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic views

20-6. Orthographic projection

20-7. Procedure for preparing a scale-drawing

20-8. Illustrative problems

Exercises XX

**Chapter 21 CENTRES OF GRAVITY AND MOMENTS OF
INERTIA OF AREAS**

21-0. Introduction

21-1. Centre of gravity

21-1-1. Centres of gravity of symmetrical areas

21-1-2. Centres of gravity of unsymmetrical areas

21-1-3. Illustrative problems on centre of gravity

21-2. Moments of inertia of areas

(1) Definition, (2) Unit

(3) Graphical method

21-3. Illustrative problems on moments of inertia

Exercises XXI

**Chapter 22 NOMOGRAPHY**

22-0. Introduction

22-1. Types of nomographs

22-2. Definitions of various terms

22-3. Principle of construction of nomographs of three variables

22-4. Method of constructing parallel scale nomographs

22-5. Layout of nomographs

22-6. Z-type nomographs

Exercises XXII

**Chapter 23 SCREW THREADS**

23-0. Introduction

23-1. Definitions

(1) Crest, (2) Root, (3) Flank, (4) Angle

(5) Depth, (6) Nominal diameter

(7) Outside or major diameter

(8) Core or minor diameter

(9) Effective diameter

(10) Pitch, (11) Lead, (12) Slope

23-2. Forms of screw threads

23-2-1. Triangular or V threads

(1) Unified thread

(2) Metric thread

(3) Whitworth thread

(4) British Standard Fine and British Standard Pipe threads

(5) Sellers thread

(6) British Association thread

23-2-2. Square thread

(1) Acme thread

(2) Knuckle thread

(3) Buttress thread

23-3. Conventional representation of threads SP: 46-2003

23-4. Multiple-start threads

23-5. Right-hand & left-hand threads

Exercises XXIII

**Chapter 24 SCREWED FASTENINGS**

24-0. Introduction

24-1. Types of nuts

24-1-1. Hexagonal nut

24-1-2. Square nut

24-2. Types of nuts for special purpose

(1) Flanged nut

(2) Cap nut

(3) Dome nut

(4) Cylindrical or capstan nut

(5) Ring nut

(6) Wing nut

24-3. Washers

24-4. Bolts

24-5. Forms of bolts

(1) Hexagonal-headed bolt

(2) Square-headed bolt

(3) Cylindrical or cheese-headed bolt

(4) Cup-headed or round-headed bolt

(5) T-headed bolt

(6) Countersunk-headed bolt

(7) Hook bolt

(8) Headless tapered bolt

(9) Eye-bolt

(10) Lifting eye-bolt

(11) Tap-bolt or cap-screw

(12) Stud-bolt or stud

24-6. Set-screws

24-7. Locking arrangements for nuts

(1) Lock-nut or check-nut

(2) Split-pin

(3) Slotted nut

(4) Castle nut

(5) Sawn nut or Wiles nut

(6) Simmond’s lock-nut

(7) Penn, ring or grooved nut

(8) Stop-plate or locking-plate

(9) Spring-washer

24-8. Foundation bolts

(1) Eye or Hoop bolt

(2) Rag bolt

(3) Lewis bolt

(4) Cotter bolt

(5) Curved or bent bolt

(6) Squar-headed bolt

24-9. Spanner

24-10. Longitudinal or bar stay

24-11. Conventional symbols for nuts and bolts

Exercises XXIV

**Chapter 25 RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS**

25-1. Introduction

25-2. Riveting

25-2-1. Caulking and fullering

25-3. Forms and proportions of rivet-heads

25-4. Failure of riveted joints

25-5. Dimensions of a riveted joint

25-6. Types of riveted joints

25-6-1. Lap joint

25-6-2. Butt joint

25-7. Rolled-steel sections

25-7-1. Connection of plates at right angles

25-7-2. Gusset stay

25-8. Welded joints

ENGINEERING DRAWING

25-8-2. Types of welding process

25-8-3. Types of welded and welds joints

(1) Types of welded joints

(2) Types of welds

25-8-4. Representation of welded joints

Exercises XXV

**Chapter 26 COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (CADR)**

26-1. Introduction

26-2. Computer Aided Drafting

26-3. Computer

26-3-1. Processor (CPU)

26-3-2. Display

26-3-3. INPUT Devices

26-3-4. Graphic Output Devices

26-4. CAD Software

26-5. AutoCAD

26-5-2. Classic screen layout of autocad 2010

26-5-3. Function keys

26-5-4. Drawing Entities

26-5-5. Drafting Aids

26-5-6. Editing of a Drawing

26-6. Symbol Library

26-7. Two dimensional drawings

26-8. Isometric drawings

26-9. 3D Geometrical Modeling

26-9-1. 3D Wireframe Modelling

26-9-2. 3D Surface Modelling

26-9-3. 3D Solid Modelling

26-9-4. Commands To Generate Profile Based 3D Solids

26-10. Three Dimensional Drawings

26-11. Perspective View In Autocad

Exercises XXVI

Index

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