Reinforced Concrete Vol. II By Dr. H. J. Shah


By Dr. H. J. Shah

8th Edition 2022
ISBN : 9789385039492
Binding : Paperback
Pages : 776 + 24 = 800
Size (mm) : 279 × 40 × 203
Weight : 1560 g

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This book presents the basic principles involved in Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. This Eighth edition of Vol. II has been thoroughly revised and extensively enlarged. Some chapters from Seventh edition were transferred to Vol. I of this book. Now in this Vol. II, it is divided in two parts discuss the followings:

Part I : Multi-storeyed buildings and Part II : Water tanks: Liquid retaining structures.
This is a unique book as it contains material complying with latest Indian codes with their respective amendments till October 2022. All chapters are revised with adding a plenty of new matter, examples and figures.

The outline of the book “Reinforced Concrete Vol. II – Part I : Chapter 01 to 12” as mentioned below:
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Multi-storeyed buildings and discusses the overall understanding of the subject. Chapter 2 contains an overview of gravity load analysis and design and explains how to calculate gravity loads on beams and columns of the building. Chapter 3 is devoted for basics of building dynamics. Since the buildings are subjected to dynamic loads like wind and earthquake, it becomes necessary to understand some basics of building dynamics. Only a few basics necessary to understand the analysis and design of medium rise buildings are explained. Chapter 4 gives information about lateral loads, viz., wind and earthquake loads. Dynamic nature of wind is not considered in the scope of this book. Therefore, static wind forces are explained and also calculated for buildings, while earthquake forces are only explained. Lateral loads result in lateral deformations of building. Chapter 5 discusses about the deformations (horizontal as well as vertical) in the buildings. Overall deformation and inter-storey drift discussed in this chapter play very important role in design of these buildings. Chapter 6 explains how to calculate earthquake forces on the building as a whole and also component-wise. Response spectrum method is adopted by IS:1893 for earthquake loads calculations. Chapter 7 explains how to plan medium rise buildings to make them earthquake resistant. Chapter 8 discusses the ductile design as per IS:13920 including amendments published so far. It is necessary for all buildings to follow the ductile design (Optional for earthquake zone II).

After getting this preliminary knowledge, an unbraced seven storeyed building (structurally seven storeys) is considered and analyzed; and designed and detailed for all practical considerations manually in chapters 9, 10 and 11. All the chapters are completely based on an excel program. This will clarify the analysis and design of a complete building. Chapter 12 is devoted for walls and shear wall design. Although the building design with shear walls is not considered in the scope of this book. Typically, shear walls are also used for medium rise buildings in modern scenario.

The outline of the book “Reinforced Concrete Vol. II – Part II : Chapter 13 to 20” as mentioned below:
These chapters discuss the design of liquid retaining structures by using limit state theory as was adopted in IS:3370-2009 and also in its 2021 revision. In this respect, it is a unique book.
It starts with fundamentals of liquid retaining structures in Chapter 13 and explains how such structures are different than conventional buildings. Limiting the crack width for no leakage of water from tanks is the key design of such structures. Chapter 14 discusses designs of different members of liquid retaining structures. This chapter should be very helpful to appreciate the design of water tanks. Loads acting on such structures have to be treated in different manner than conventional buildings. Chapter 15 gives good understanding of various loads acting on water tanks.

Complete designs of circular and rectangular tanks resting on ground are treated in chapters 16 and 17 respectively. Since calculation of earthquake loads is yet not known, these chapters assume earthquake loads by using thumb rules recommended by the author. Chapter 18 is devoted for calculating earthquake loads on water tanks which is based on empirical formulae given by IS:1983(Part II). Chapter 19 designs circular and rectangular overhead tanks subjected to all types of loads. Chapter 20 designs an intze tank supported by peripheral columns with full practical details.

Now this book “Reinforced Concreted Vol. II, in its 20 Chapters contains:
* 380 Neatly drawn sketches
* 134 Useful tables
* 109 Design examples
* 209 Questions at the end of chapters
* 066 Examples for practice at the end of chapters.

The book in the present form will prove to be extremely useful to the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering and Architecture of all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S., and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also be an immense use to practicing Civil Engineers.

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Chapter 1 Multi-Storyed Buildings:


1-1. Introduction
1-2. Contributing factors to multi-storeyed buildings
(1)Development of high strength materials
(2)Development of new design concepts
(3)Development of new structural systems
(4)Improved construction methods
(5)Non-destructive testing and
retrofitting techniques
1-3. Nomenclatures
(1)Description of building
(2)Floor number
(3)Storey number
(4)Column number
(5)Main beam number
(6)Floor beam number
1-4. Loads on multi-storeyed buildings
(1)Dead loads
(2)Imposed (live) loads
(3)Wind loads
(4)Earthquake loads
1-5. Primary loads and load combinations
(1)Primary loads
(2)Load combinations
1-6. Shear walls
(1)Isolated shear wall
(2)Coupled shear walls
1-7. Mechanism of load transfer
(1)Gravity loads
(2)Lateral loads
(4)Linear analysis
1-8. Introduction
(2)Vertical elements
(3)Horizontal elements
1-9. Diaphragms: functions and types
(1)Flexible diaphragm
(2)Rigid diaphragm
1-10. Forces on diaphragms
(1)In-plane forces
(2)Transfer forces
(3)Connection forces
(4)Column bracing forces
(5)Diaphragm out of plane forces
1-11. Components of diaphragm
(1)Diaphragm slab
(2)Chord elements (tension chord and
compression chord)
(3)Collectors (or distributors)
(4)Connections with vertical elements
1-12. Flat slab and conventional
slab-beam diaphragms
(1)Flat slab diaphragms
(2)Conventional slab/beam diaphragm
1-13. Centre of mass and centre of rigidity
(1)Centre of mass
(2)Centre of rigidity (stiffness)
1-14. Lateral stiffness
(1)Translational stiffness
(2)Rotational stiffness
1-15. Distribution of lateral loads to lateral
force resisting system (LFRS) elements
(1)Flat slab diaphragm
(2)Conventional slab beam diaphragm
(3)Simplification by using relative stiffness – conventional slab beam diaphragm
1-16. Classification of structures
(1)Unbraced structures
(2)Braced structures
(3)Dual structures
1-17. Structural systems
(1)Moment frame systems
(2)Structural wall systems
(3)Dual systems
1-18. Low rise, medium rise, tall and Super tall buildings
1-19. Structural plan density and plan aspect ratio
(1)Structural plan density
(2)Slenderness ratio
(3)Plan aspect ratio
1-20. Structural layout
(1)Building panels
(2)Setting the levels
(3)Setting the columns
1-21. Analysis, design and detailing (ADD)
1-22. Distinguishing factors to design of tall buildings
(1)Lateral displacements and drift
(2)Differential shortening of columns
Questions 1

Examples 1

Chapter 2 Analysis And Design For Gravity Loads: An Overview

2-1. Introduction
2-2. Calculation of gravity loads
2-3. Area method
2-4. Beam reaction method
(1)Choice of method
(2)Software calculations
2-5. Imposed load reduction
2-6. Column load calculations
2-7. Gravity load analysis
(1)Substitute frame
(2)Slabs and secondary beams
(3)Main beams
2-8. Important analysis parameters
(1)Modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete
(2)Effective moment of inertia of
framed members: Stiffness modifiers
2-9. Design of floor
(1)Design for flexure
(2)Corrections in beam moments
(3)Design for shear
2-10. Analysis and design of columns
2-11. Tie beams and ground beams
2-12. Footings
(1)Column/wall — footing connection
(2)Transfer of loads from shallow footings to the soil
(3)Characteristics of soils to be selected for laying foundation
(4)Depth of foundation
(5)Choice of column/wall — footing connection
2-13. Seismic requirements for foundations
2-14. Concreting in slab-beams and columns
2-15. Conclusion

Questions 2

Chapter 3 Basics of Building Dynamics

3-1. Lateral loads
3-2. Basics of vibration
(1)Damping of a system
(2)Classification of vibrations
(3)Types of vibration
3-3. Degrees of freedom
(1)Single degree of freedom (SDOF) system
(2)Multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system
(3)Vibrations in a building (space structure)
(4)Shear building
(5)Practical buildings


3-4. Vibration parameters
(1)Motion of translation
(2)Motion of rotation
3-5. Damping
(1)Viscous damping
(2)Critical damping
(3)Damping ratio or damping value
(4)Behaviour of vibrating system
(5)Damped circular frequency
(6)Decay of vibration
(7)Number of cycles before rest
3-6. Review formulae
(2)Mass moments of inertia
3-7. Fundamental natural period
3-8. Fundamental natural period:
BIS formulae
(1)Wind loads
(2)Earthquake loads
(3)Effect of masonry infills
Questions 3

Examples 3

Chapter 4 Lateral Loads

4-1. Introductory
4-2. Wind loads
4-3. Wind pressure on buildings
(1)Basic wind speed
(2)Design wind speed
(3)Design wind pressure
(4)Interference effect
(5)Dynamic effects of wind
4-4. Wind loads on buildings
4-5. The earthquake
4-6. Interior of the earth
4-7. Tectonic plates
4-8. Causes and occurrence of an earthquake
4-9. Terminology
(1)Focus or hypocentre
(3)Focal depth
(4)Epicentre distance
4-10. Measurement of ground motion
4-11. Magnitude of earthquake
4-12. Intensity of earthquake (Damage Potential)
4-13. Seismic zoning
4-14. Ground accelerations
4-15. Difference between wind loads and earthquake loads
4-16. Factors governing response of buildings during earthquakes
(1)Properties of the structure
(2)Properties of foundation
(3)Characteristics of the exciting motion
4-17. Effects of earthquakes
(1)Effect on the soil mass
(2)Effect on the structure
4-18. Effect of seismic waves on soil
(1)For determining the spectrum to be used to estimate design earthquake force
(2)For determining percentage increase in
net bearing pressure and skin friction
4-19. Weighted average of corrected N values of a multi-layer soil
(1)For determining the spectrum to be used to estimate design earthquake force
(2)For determining percentage increase in net bearing pressure and skin friction
4-20. General principles of seismic analysis and design
(1)Fundamental assumptions
(2)Design criteria
(3)Basic strategy of earthquake design
(4)Designing earthquake resistant structures
(5)Load Combinations for R. C. structures
(6)Design horizontal and vertical earthquake loads and
their combinations
(7)Increase in net bearing pressure and skin friction of soil
4-21. Seismic weight
4-22. Lateral loads acting on a rigid diaphragm
4-23. Accidental eccentricity
4-24. Design eccentricity
4-25. Analysis of building for lateral loads
4-26. Analysis of a frame subjected to wind or earthquake loads
4-27. The portal method
4-28. The cantilever method
4-29. Modified portal method
4-30. Closure
Questions 4

Examples 4

Chapter 5 Deformation of RCC Buildings

5-1. Sway and drift
(1)Vertical gravity loads (Dead and live loads)
(2)Horizontal loads (wind and Earthquake loads)
5-2. First order analysis of drift
5-3. Absolute displacement concept
5-4. Drift due to rotation of columns and girders
(1)Drift due to column rotation
(2)Drift due to beam rotation
5-5. Lateral stiffness of the storey
5-6. Stiffness irregularity (Soft storey)
5-7. Revision in design for storey drift
5-8. Displacement due to cantilever action of the space frame
5-9. Shear leak displacement
5-10. First order lateral strength of storey:
Strength irregularity (Weak storey)
5-11. Second order analysis
5-12. Second order drift due to lateral loads: P-D analysis
5-13. Stability index
(1)Frame with No-sway
(2)Frame with sway
5-14. Lateral stability of the building
5-15. Local P- d correction
Questions 5

Examples 5

Chapter 6 Calculation Of Earthquake Forces

6-1. Elastic Response Spectrum
6-2. Design horizontal seismic coefficient
(1)The seismic zone factor
(2)The design acceleration coefficient
(3)Response reduction factor
(4)Importance factor
6-3. Methods of calculating earthquake forces
(1)Linear methods
(2)Non-linear methods
6-4. Lateral force
6-5. Equivalent static method
6-6. Natural modes of oscillation of a building
6-7. Determination of lateral seismic forces
using response spectrum method
(1)Mode number and damage potential
(2)Response spectrum analysis
(3)Torsion mode
6-8. Equations of motion
6-9. Determination of eigenvectors and drawing mode shapes
(1)Eigenvector for w1
(2)Calculation of eigenvectors to determine mode shapes
(3)Mode shapes
6-10. Calculation of seismic shears at each floor
(1)Modal mass
(2)Modal mass contribution
(3)Number of modes to be considered
(4)Missing mass correction
(5)Mode participation factor


(6)Design lateral force at each floor in each mode
6-11. Modal combination
(1)CQC (Complete quadratic combination) Method
(2)SRSS method (Alternate method)
6-12. Storey drift

Questions 6

Chapter 7 Earthquake Resistant

Structural Planning

7-1. Introductory
7-2. Five Priorities
7-3. Progressive collapse
(1)Design or construction errors
(2)Extreme loading conditions
7-4. Structural Integrity
7-5. Structural Restorability
7-6. Desirable Attributes to Earthquake Resistant Building
7-6-1. Robust structural configuration
7-6-2. At least a minimum elastic lateral stiffness
7-6-3. At least a minimum lateral strength
7-6-4. Adequate ductility
7-7. General Requirements
(1)Interaction between architect and structural engineer
(2)Grid planning
(3)Maximum height
(4)Slenderness ratio
(6)Plan aspect ratio
7-8. Requirements related to earthquake design
(2)Continuity in load path
(3)Well defined LFRS
(4)Codal requirements
7-9. Structural Irregularities
7-9-1. Plan irregularities
(1)Torsion irregularities
(2)Re-entrant corners
(3)Floor slabs having excessive cut outs or openings
(4)Out of plane offsets in vertical elements
(5)Non-Parallel lateral force system
7-9-2. Vertical Irregularities
(1)Stiffness irregularities
(2)Mass irregularities
(3)Vertical geometrical irregularities
(4)In-plane discontinuity in LFRS elements
(5)Strength irregularities (Weak Storey)
(6)Floating or stub columns
(7)Irregular modes of oscillation in
two principal plan directions
7-10. Lateral force resisting system (LFRS)
7-11. Closure

Questions 7

Chapter 8 Ductility Consideration

8-1. Introductory
8-2. Capacity design concept
8-3. Strong beam-weak column verses
strong column weak beam design
(1)Strong beam-weak column design
(2)Strong column-weak beam design
8-4. Ductility requirements
8-5. Forms of transverse reinforcement
(3)Modified transverse reinforcement for beams
8-6. Materials requirements
(3)Requirements of testing of steel
8-7. General
8-8. Requirements of longitudinal reinforcement
(1)Minimum and maximum steel in a beam
(2)Longitudinal steel at support
(3)Longitudinal steel at sections other than supports
(4)Anchorage of longitudinal bars at support
(5)Splicing of longitudinal bar
8-9. Transverse reinforcement
8-10. Calculation of design shear in beams
8-11. Lose of shear strength due to formation of plastic hinge
8-12. Shear resistance or a shear capacity of the section
8-13. Detailing rules for transverse reinforcement
8-14. Columns and inclined members
8-15. Selection of column dimensions
(1)Providing adequate anchorage within the joint:
Minimum dimension
(2)Confining of the core concrete
8-16. Relative strengths of beams and columns at a beam-column joint
8-17. Reinforcement requirements for columns
8-17-1. Design and details of transverse reinforcement
(3)Circular columns
(4)Rectangular columns
8-17-2. Splices in longitudinal bars
(1)Lap splices
(2)Welded splices
(3)Mechanical splices – Couplers
8-18. Nomenclature for column lengths
(1)Floor height
(2)Length of column or storey height
(3)Unsupported length of column
8-19. Types of beam column joints
based on confinement
8-20. Special confining reinforcement
(2)Spacing of special confining reinforcement
(3)Calculation of area of special confining reinforcement
(4)Additional rules
8-21. Design of ductile column for shear
8-22. Summary of detailing of column reinforcement
(1)Longitudinal reinforcement
(2)Location of lap
(3)Transverse reinforcement
8-23. Horizontal shear in beam column joint
(1)Effective width of the joint
(2)Effective area of the joint
(3)Distortional shear stress at the joint
(4) Shear strength of concrete in a joint
(5) Checking
Questions 8

Example 8

Chapter 9 SMRF Building – I: Design  Example — Gravity Load Analysis

9-1. Requirements of the example
9-2. Global and local axes
9-3. Data of the example building
(1)General data
(2)Soil report
(3)Summary of the building configuration
9-4. Unit load calculations
(1)Slab at terrace level
(2)Slab at typical floor level
(3)Beams (All floors)
(4)Columns: (16 No.)
(5)Peripheral brick walls
(6)Height of parapet at terrace
(7)Floor level beams
9-5. Calculation of levels and self weights of columns
9-6. Selection of concrete grades in columns and beams of various storeys
9-7. Column gravity load calculations using beam-reaction method
9-8. Primary loads and load combinations
9-9. Gravity load analysis
(1)Use of symmetry
(2)Calculation of distribution factors
(3)Calculation of gross moments of inertia values of beams and columns at various storeys
(4)Distribution factors for factored loads
(5)Primary loads and load combinations
(6)Analysis of a typical beam
9-10. Analysis of beams B1-B2-B3 and B10-B11-B12 AT 6th level
9-11. Idealisation of connection between main beams and
floor beams (FB)
9-12. Closure

Example 9

Chapter 10 Smrf Building – II: Design Example — Lateral Load Analysis

10-1. Introductory
10-2. Wind load calculation
(2)Check for dynamic analysis
(3)Design wind speed
(4)Design wind pressure
(5)Wind load calculations
(6)Wind load analysis
10-3. Earthquake Analysis
(1)Calculation of seismic weight
(2)Calculation of base shear using approximate fundamental
translational period of oscillation
10-4. The response spectrum method
10-5. Response spectrum analysis
(1)Calculation of various matrices
(2)Calculation of time period
(3)Calculation of Eigen vectors
(4)Mode shapes
(5)Number of modes to be considered
(6)Modal mass
(7)Modal contribution
(8)The modal participation factor
10-6. Design lateral force at each floor in each mode
10-7. Drift and stability analysis
10-8. Accidental eccentricity and design earthquake forces
10-9. Earthquake load analysis using portal method
10-10. Comparison of lateral loads
10-11. Closure

Examples 10

Chapter 11 SMRF Building – III:

Design Example — Design

11-1. Design of the building
(2)Beams and columns
11-2. Design of typical floor
(1)Floor slab
(2)Floor beam
11-3. Summary of analysis results of beams
11-4. Design of beam
(2)Design for flexure
(3)Check for anchorages of reinforcements
(4)Moment capacities of various sections
11-5. Design of a typical corner column
11-5-1. Collection of data
11-5-2. Selection of trial sections of columns for
selected load combinations
(1)Design proposal
(2)Main longitudinal reinforcement
11-5-3. Checking of trial sections for other
load combinations with wind and earthquake
(1)Nominal flexural strength of column
(2)Nominal flexural strength of beams
11-5-4. Design of secondary reinforcements in column
(1) Arrangement of transverse reinforcement
(2) Design of transverse reinforcement
11-5-5. Design of Column for Shear
11-6. Square footing design for C1
considering various load combinations
(1)Loading data
(2)Soil data
(3)Soil design
(4)Analysis and design

Example 11

Chapter 12 Walls in Buildings

12-1. Introductory
(1)Types of walls
(2)Loads carried by structural walls
12-2. Classification of walls
(1)Braced and unbraced walls
(2)Stocky (short) and slender (long) walls
(3)Ordinary and ductile walls
12-3. Axially loaded plain concrete braced walls
(1)Thickness of the wall
(2)Effective height of braced walls
(3)Calculation of axial loads and their eccentricity
(4)Design axial strength of a braced wall
(5)Reinforcements in wall
(6)Walls subjected to combined horizontal and vertical forces
(7)Design for horizontal shear
12-4. Shear Walls
(1)Isolated shear walls
(2)Coupled shear wall
12-5. Special shear walls
12-6. General requirements for special shear walls
(1)Minimum ratio
(2)Minimum thickness
(3)Classification of special walls based on ratio
(4)Reinforcement requirements
(5)Minimum reinforcement
(6)Maximum diameter and maximum spacing
(7)Foundation of special walls
12-7. Design for shear force
12-8. Interaction charts for Shear walls without boundary
elements subjected to in-plane axial loads and moments
12-9. Straight wall with uniform steel
12-10. Simplified method of designing a shearwall with
boundary elements
(1)Thickness of the wall
(2)Properties of wall
(3)Necessity of boundary element
(4)Size of boundary element
(5)Curtains of reinforcement required
(6)Maximum spacing of vertical and horizontal bars
(7)Flexure reinforcement in wall/web
(8)Design for shear (Horizontal reinforcement)
(9)Distribution of axial load in boundary element (B.E.) and web
(10)Moment of resistance of web
(11)Axial loads in boundary elements
(12)Design of boundary element
(13)Boundary element (B.E.) links
(14)Net steel ratio
12-11. Gravity columns
(2)Behaviour of gravity columns under earthquake event
(3)Design criteria of gravity columns
(4)Analysis and design of
complete building with gravity columns
(5)Special case

Questions 12


Chapter 13 Liquid Retaining Structures: Fundamentals

13-1. Introductory
13-2. Typical water supply scheme
(1)Collection of potable water from water sources
(2)Water collection and distribution scheme
(3)Storage reservoirs
(4)Working of storage reservoirs
13-3. Special Considerations
13-4. Site Conditions
13-5. Materials
13-6. Concrete
(1)Quantity of cement
(2)Minimum grade of concrete
(3)Maximum free water cement ratio
(4)Minimum thickness of members
(5)Concrete cover to reinforcement
13-7. Construction issues at foundation level
13-8. Joints
(1)Construction joints
(2)Movement joints
(3)Temporary open joint
13-9. Cracks in concrete
(1)Heat of hydration of cement
(2)Drying shrinkage
(3)Environmental conditions (temperature changes)
13-10. Ensuring uniform crack
distribution in unloaded members
13-11. Controlling crack width
(1)Crack spacing
(2)Crack width
13-12. Design options
(1)Continuous for full restraint
(3)Close movement joints for freedom of movement
13-13. Minimum reinforcement
(2)Thick sections
(3)Surface zones
(4)Minimum reinforcement
13-14. Modelling the connections between container elements
(1)Connection between side wall and cover slab
(2)Connection between adjacent sidewalls in rectangular tank
(3)Connection between wall and base
Questions 13
Examples 13
Chapter 14 Liquid Retaining Structures:

Member Design

14-1. Introductory
14-2. Limit state design
(1)Limit state of collapse
(2)Limit state of serviceability
14-3. Cases for member design
(1)Members subjected to flexure only
(2)Members subjected to axial tension only
(3)Members subjected to tension with bending
14-4. Review of equations for flexure and
shear design by limit state method
(1)Design for flexure
(2)Design for shear
14-5. Design of a wall
14-6. Moment capacity and shear capacity tables
(1)Moment capacity table
(2)Shear capacity table
14-7. Cracking
14-8. Calculation of crack width due to flexure
14-9. Check for development length
(1)Development length
(2)Lap length
14-10. Check for deflection of a wall
14-11. Members subjected to axial tension
14-12. Member subjected to bending and
axial tension acting orthogonally
14-13. Member subjected to bending and axial
tension acting in the same direction
14-14. Determination of predominance of
tension or flexure on a section
14-15. Strength design of a member subjected to combined axial
tension and bending
14-16. Checking the crack width of a section subjected to combined
tension and flexure
(1)Tension predominates:
(2)Flexure predominates
Questions 14

Examples 14

Chapter 15 Liquid Retaining Structures: Loading

15-1. Introductory
15-2. Primary Loads
(1)Dead loads
(2)Live or imposed loads (LL)
(3)Earthquake loads (EL)
(4)Wind loads (WL)
(5)Earth pressure (EP)
(6)Snow loads (SL)
(7)Liquid (fluid) load (FL)
15-3. Load combinations
15-4. Other loads and application of loads
(1)Internal liquid pressure in circular tank
(2)Temperature effects on connection between wall and roof slab
(3)Ground water table (GWT)
15-5. Liquid pressure loading
15-6. Earth pressure (EP) loads
(1)Earth pressure at rest
(2)Active earth pressure
(3)Passive earth pressure
(4)General formulae
(5)Cohesive soil as backfill
(6)c-f soil as backfill
(7)Cantilever and counterfort retaining walls
(8)Under ground water tanks
(9)Choice of backfill and estimation of earth pressure
(10)Conventional procedure
(11)Estimating equivalent f for c-f soil
15-6-1. Earth pressure due to surcharge
15-6-2. Earth pressure of submerged soil
15-7. Further discussion on handling ground water table problems
(1)Tips for similar cases
(2)Connection between wall and base slab
15-8. Wind loads on water tanks and staging

Examples 15

Chapter 16 Circular Tanks

16-1. Introductory
16-2. Circular tanks with flexible joint at the base
16-3. Analysis of circular tanks
16-4. Design of circular tank
(2)Load combinations
(3)Under ground and resting on ground tanks
(4)Overhead tanks (OHT) or Elevated storage reservoir (ESR)
16-5. Introductory
16-6. Cover slab or dome
(1)Simple slab freely supported over walls
(2)Normal slab-beams with or without columns
(3)Flat slab supported on columns and wall
(5)Accessaries associated with top cover
(6)Structural modelling
16-7. Side walls
16-8. Side wall footing
16-9. Base slab
16-10. Estimate for earthquake loads on container

Examples 16

Chapter 17 Rectangular tanks

17-1. Introductory
17-2. Use of coefficients from IS:3370(Part IV)
(1)Deflection calculations (tables 70 to 73)
(2)Moment calculations with triangular loads (tables 74 to 103) and rectangular loads (tables 210 to 239)
(3)Shear calculations with triangular loads (tables 28) and rectangular loads (table 93)
17-3. Trial depth and selection of layer of reinforcement
17-4. Analysis and design of
rectangular underground storage reservoir (USR)
17-5. Design of cover slab
(1)Design of reinforcement for limit state of collapse
(2)Checking of section for limit state of cracking
(3)Typical calculation for checking the crack width (Centre of short span)
(4)Check for deflection
17-6. Design of foundation: Rectangular tank [Long Wall]
(2)Summary of gravity loads
(3)Calculation of moment @ toe
(4)Pressure diagrams
(5)Analysis of wall footing
(6)Provision of reinforcement in wall footing
(7)Check for crack width
(8)Check for shear
(9)Design of base slab
Questions 17

Chapter 18 Earthquake forces on liquid retaining structures

18-1. Liquid Pressures induced due to Earthquake
(1)Impulsive pressure
(2)Convective pressure
(3)Pressure due to wall inertia
(4)Pressure due to vertical acceleration
18-2. Spring mass model for ground supported tanks
18-2-1. Determination of spring mass model parameters
(1)Circular tanks
(2)Rectangular tanks
18-3. Calculation of earthquake forces
(1)Determination of time period
(3)Zone factor
(4)Importance factor
(5)Response reduction factor
(6)Design horizontal seismic coefficient
(7)Base shear
(8)Base moments
(9)Hydrodynamic pressure
(10)Pressure due to wall inertia
(11)Pressure due to vertical ground acceleration
(12)Sloshing wave height
(13)Anchorage requirement
18-4. Equivalent linear pressure distribution
18-5. Closure
Questions 18

Examples 18

Chapter 19 Elevated Water Tanks

[Elevated Storage reservoir (ESR)]

19-1. Introductory
19-2. Components of an elevated tank
(2)Supporting system called staging
19-3. Structural design of an ESR
(1)Loads and load combinations
(2)Wind load analysis
(3)Earthquake load analysis
(4)Design constants
19-4. Design of ESR on Trestle
19-5. Closure

Examples 19

Chapter 20 Intze Tank

20-1. Introduction
20-2. Analysis and design
(1)Membrane analysis
(2)Effect of continuity
(3)Wind loads on the tank and staging
(4)Earthquake loads on the tank
20-2-1. Design of Container
(1)Top dome (cover roof )
(2)Top ring beam
(3)Side walls (circular)
(4)Middle ring beam
(5)Conical dome
(6)Bottom spherical dome
(7)Bottom circular ring beam
(8)Intze principle
20-2-2. Design of Staging
(1)Design of columns
(2)Design of bracings
20-3. Effect of continuity
(2)Analysis procedure
Example 20


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