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HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

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By RANGWALA

11th Edition 2017 (Paperback)
ISBN : 9789385039294
408 + 16 = 424 Pages
Size : 17 cm × 23.5 cm × 1.8 cm
Weight : 0.435 kg

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Description

This text-book deals with the design methods of construction, planning, alignment and
maintenance of all types of highways; and various other topics such as traffic management, road
making machineries, drainage, arboriculture and lighting, highway economics, etc. connected
with the subject of Highway Engineering.
The book is divided into sixteen well-arranged chapters: therein it contains –
* 280 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches
* 31 Illustrative problems
* 54 Important tables
* 316 Typical questions at the end of each chapter.
The salient features of the book are:
* Comprehensive presentation
* Clear exposition and brief description
* Step-by-step treatment
* Simple and lucid language.
The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for
the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by
various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C.,
G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also
prove of interest to the practising professionals.

Additional information

Weight 0.435 kg
Dimensions 17 × 1.8 × 23.5 cm
Author Name

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Content

1 : INTRODUCTION
2 : HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT
3 : GEOMETRICAL DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS
4 : LOW COST ROADS
5 : BITUMINOUS ROADS
6 : CEMENT CONCRETE ROADS
7 : TESTS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
8 : DESIGN OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS
9 : OTHER TYPES OF PAVEMENTS
10 : HILL ROADS
11 : HIGHWAY DRAINAGE
12 : HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE
13 : HIGHWAY MAKING MACHINERIES
14 : TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
15 : HIGHWAY ARBORICULTURE AND LIGHTING
16 : HIGHWAY ECONOMICS
APPENDIX 1 : TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS
APPENDIX 2 : ABBREVIATED TERMS
INDEX

Content Details


Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1. General
1-2. History of road construction
(1) Roman roads
(2) Tresaguet construction
(3) Metcalf construction
(4) Telford construction
(5) Macadam construction
1-3. Development of roads in India
(1) Roads in ancient India
(2) Roads in Mughal period
(3) Road development during British rule
(4) Road development in free India
1-4. Modes of transportation
(1) Transportation by land
(2) Transportation by water
(3) Transportation by air
1-5. Characteristics of road transport
1-6. Advantages of roads
1-7. Importance of roads in India
1-8. Requirements of an ideal road
1-9. Scope of highway and transportation engineering
1-10. Transportation in India
1-11. Indian Institutions for Highway at National Level
(1) Indian Road Congress (IRC)
(2) National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
(3) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH)
(4) Central Road Research Institute (CRRI)
QUESTIONS 1


Chapter 2 HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT

2-1. General
2-2. Objects of highway planning
2-3. Classification of highways
2-3-1. According to location and function
(1) National highways (NH)
(2) State highways (SH)
(3) Major district roads (MDR)
(4) Other district roads (ODR)
(5) Village roads (VR)
(6) Border roads
(7) Express highways
2-3-2. Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) projects
(1) Kundli – Manesar – Palwal (KMP) expressway
(2) Delhi – Gurgaon expressway
(3) Gwalior – Jhansi Highway BOT (Annuity) project
(4) Lucknow – Sitapur Highway
2-3-3. According to traffic
(1) Character of traffic (3) Traffic density
(2) Designed speed
2-3-4. According to transported tonnage
2-4. Formulas for road lengths
(1) First 20-year road plan (1943-61) or Nagpur road plan
(2) Second 20-year road plan (1961-81) or Bombay road plan
(3) Third 20-year road plan (1981-2001) or Lucknow road plan
2-5. Saturation system
(1) Population (2) Products
2-6. Highway alignment
(1) Easiness (3) Safety
(2) Economics (4) Shortness
2-7. Factors affecting highway alignment
(1) Availability of road (5) Easy grades and curves
building materials (6) Obligatory points
(2) Crossings (7) Proper drainage
(3) Geological features (8) Traffic
(4) Land acquisition (9) Miscellaneous
2-8. Planning surveys
(1) Economic studies (3) Financial studies
(2) Engineering studies (4) Traffic studies
Importance of planning surveys
2-9. Engineering surveys
2-10. Reconnaissance survey

(1) Objects of reconnaissance survey
(2) Importance of reconnaissance survey
(3) Information gathered in reconnaissance survey
(4) Factors to be kept in view during reconnaissance survey
(5) Instruments for reconnaissance survey
2-11. Preliminary survey
(1) Object of preliminary survey
(2) Importance of preliminary survey
(3) Work of preliminary survey
(4) Instruments for preliminary survey
2-12. Location survey
(1) Object of location survey
(2) Importance of location survey
(3) Work of location survey
(4) Instruments for location survey
2-13. Project report and drawings
(1) Project report
(2) Drawings
2-14. Highway re-alignment projects
2-15. Works of re-alignment
2-16. General principles of re-alignment
(1) Entire alignment (4) Through-traffic
(2) Major bridges (5) Water-logging
(3) Over-bridges and under-bridges
2-17. Procedure of re-alignment projects
QUESTIONS 2


Chapter 3 GEOMETRICAL DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS

3-1. General
3-2. Road structure
(1) Subsoil (3) Base
(2) Subgrade (4) Surfacing
3-3. Width of pavement or carriageway
3-4. Traffic separators or medians
3-5. Kerbs
(1) Class I kerbs (3) Class III kerbs
(2) Class II kerbs
3-6. Road margins
(1) Cycle tracks (5) Frontage roads
(2) Driveways (6) Guard rails
(3) Embankment slopes (7) Parking lanes
(4) Footpaths (8) Shoulders
3-7. Width of roadway or formation
3-8. Right of way
3-9. Typical cross-sections of roads
3-10. Camber
(1) Definition (4) Shapes of camber
(2) Necessity (5) Camber boards
(3) Rate of camber
3-11. Design speed
(1) Class of road (2) Class of terrain
3-12. Stopping sight distance (SSD)
(1) General (3) Factors affecting SSD
(2) Factors (4) Length of SSD
3-13. Crossing sight distance
3-14. Overtaking sight distance
3-15. Overtaking zones
3-16. Sight distance at intersections
(1) Change of speed (3) Importance of roads
(2) Coming to stop
3-17. Road gradient
(1) Definition
(2) Factors affecting road gradient
(3) Types of gradients
3-18. Grade compensation on horizontal curves
3-19. Super-elevation
(1) Definition
(2) Advantages of super-elevation
(3) Calculation of super-elevation
(4) Minimum and maximum super-elevation
(5) Methods of providing super-elevation
3-20. Horizontal curves

(1) Necessity
(2) Objections to curvature
(3) Factors affecting the design of curves
(4) Radius of horizontal curve
(5) Widening of pavement on horizontal curves
(6) Types of horizontal curves
3-21. Vertical curves
(1) Summit curves (2) Va lley curves
QUESTIONS 3


Chapter 4 LOW COST ROADS

4-1. General
4-2. Classification of low cost roads
(1) Earth roads (4) Moorum roads
(2) Kankar roads (5) Traffic bound macadam roads
(3) Gravel roads (6) Water bound macadam roads
4-3. Dust prevention
(1) Application of road oil
(2) Sprinkling with water
(3) Tar or asphalt surfacing
(4) Use of hygroscopic material
4-4. Soil stabilized roads
(1) General (3) Mechanics of soil stabilization
(2) Objects of soil stabilization
4-5. Soil stabilizers
(1) Bituminous materials(3) Chemical stabilizers
(2) Cementing agents
4-6. Methods of soil stabilization
(1) Mechanical stabilization
(2) Bituminous stabilization
(3) Cement stabilization
(4) Lime stabilization
(5) Chemical stabilization
(6) Miscellaneous methods of stabilization
4-7. Special problems in soil stabilization work
(1) Choice of method of stabilization
(2) Design of the stabilized mix
(3) Thickness of layer
4-8. Problems of soil stabilization of roads in black cotton soil and
desert sand
(1) Stabilization of black cotton soil
(2) Stabilization of desert sand
4-9. Soil survey
(1) General (3) Objects of soil survey
(2) Stages of soil survey
4-10. Characteristics of soil
(1) Centrifuge moisture equivalent
(2) Colour
(3) Field moisture equivalent
(4) Grain shape
(5) Lineal shrinkage and volumetric change
(6) Particle sizes and distribution
(7) Plasticity
(8) Presence of fines
(9) Specific gravity
(10) State of compaction
4-11. Soil classification systems
(1) Grain or particle size classification
(2) Textural classification
(3) Highway research board classification of soils
(4) Indian Standard soil classification
QUESTIONS 4


Chapter 5 BITUMINOUS ROADS

5-1. General
5-2. Advantages of bituminous roads
5-3. Disadvantages of bituminous roads
5-4. Bituminous materials
(1) Asphalt (5) Tar
(2) Bitumen (6) Road oil
(3) Cutback bitumen (7) Primers
(4) Bitumen emulsion
5-5. Methods of application of bituminous materials

(1) Surface dressing (5) Grouting
(2) Prime coat (6) Premix
(3) Tack coat (7) Road-mix and travel-plant mix
(4) Seal coat (8) Hot premix and cold premix
5-6. Construction of bituminous roads
(1) Surface dressing with single coat
(2) Surface dressing with two coats
(3) Full grout surface of 50 mm and 75 mm thicknesses
(4) Semi-grout surface of 50 mm thickness
(5) Bitumen bound macadam
(6) Bituminous carpet of thickness about 20 mm to 25 mm
(7) Bituminous concrete
(8) Sheet asphalt of 25 mm thickness
5-7. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)
Pavements
5-7-1. General
5-7-2. Effect of HMA on Environment
5-7-3. Advantages of reducing temperature of HMA
5-7-4. HMA Pavement with Hydrated Lime
5-7-5. Warm Mix Asphalt
5-7-6. The Future of Warm-mix Asphalt
QUESTIONS 5


Chapter 6 CEMENT CONCRETE ROADS

6-1. General
6-2. Advantages of cement concrete roads
6-3. Disadvantages of cement concrete roads
6-4. Comparison between bituminous concrete roads and cement
concrete roads
6-5. Methods of construction of cement concrete roads
(1) Alternate bay method
(2) Continuous bay method
(3) Expansion joint and strip method
6-6. Construction procedure for cement concrete roads
(1) Preparation of subgrade and sub-base
(2) Placing of forms
(3) Watering the prepared subgrade or sub-base
(4) Mixing and placing of concrete
(5) Compaction and finishing
(6) Belting, brooming and edging
(7) Curing
(8) Opening to traffic
6-7. Joints in cement concrete roads
(1) Reasons for providing joints
(2) Requirements of a good joint
(3) Types of joints
6-8. Arrangements of transverse joints
(1) Uniform spacing
(2) Staggered spacing
(3) Skew spacing
6-9. Design oF dowel bars
6-10. Design procedure
6-11. Joint fillers and sealers
6-12. Other forms of cement concrete roads
(1) Bonded concrete roads
(2) Cement macadam roads
(3) Colloidal concrete roads
(4) Creteways
(5) Prestressed concrete roads
(6) R.C.C. roads
(7) Rolled concrete roads
QUESTIONS 6


Chapter 7 TESTS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS

7-1. General
7-2. Types of road aggregates
(1) Natural aggregates
(2) Artificial aggregates
7-3. Requirements of a good road aggregate
(1) Adhesion with bitumen
(2) Cementation (5) Shape
(3) Durability (6) Strength
(4) Hardness (7) Toughness

7-4. Tests for road aggregates
(1) Abrasion test (5) Soundness test
(2) Crushing test (6) Specific gravity and
(3) Impact test water absorption test
(4) Shape test (7) Stripping value test
7-5. Functions of bituminous materials
(1) Binding effect (2) Cushion
(3) Resistance to weathering agencies
(4) Sealing of surface
7-6. Tests for bituminous materials
(1) Ductility test (6) Softening point test
(2) Flash and fire (7) Solubility test
point test (8) Specific gravity test
(3) Float test (9) Spot test
(4) Loss on heating test (10) Viscosity test
(5) Penetration test (11) Water content test
QUESTIONS 7


Chapter 8 DESIGN OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS

8-1. General
8-2. Types of pavement
(1) Flexible pavements (2) Rigid pavements
8-3. Factors affecting the design of pavements
(1) Climate (4) Pavement materials
(2) Environment (5) Subgrade soil
(3) Geometry (6) Traffic
8-4. Design of bituminous paving mixes
(1) Marshall method of mix design
(2) Hveem method of mix design
8-5. Design of flexible pavements
(1) Group index (G.I.) method
(2) California bearing ratio (C.B.R.) method
8-6. Design of rigid pavements
(1) Plain concrete
(2) Reinforced concrete
(3) Continuously reinforced concrete
(4) Prestressed concrete
8-7. Design parameters for rigid pavements
(1) Traffic parameters
(2) Environmental parameters
(3) Foundation strength
(4) Foundation surface characteristics
(5) Characteristics of concrete
(6) Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s ratio
(7) Co-efficient of thermal expansion
(8) Design of slab thickness
8-8. I.R.C. Recommended design procedure
QUESTIONS 8


Chapter 9 OTHER TYPES OF PAVEMENTS

9-1. General
9-2. Brick pavements
(1) Brick and block pavement
(2) Vitrified brick pavement
(3) Brick edging
9-3. Stone pavements
9-4. Wooden block pavements
(1) Preparation of rigid and smooth foundation
(2) Laying of blocks (3) Surface dressing
9-5. Asphaltic block pavements
9-6. Cast-iron block pavements
9-7. Rubber block pavements
QUESTIONS 9


Chapter 10 HILL ROADS

10-1. General
10-2. Importance of hill roads
(1) Development in stages
(2) Initial cost (3) Length
10-3. Classification of hill roads
(1) According to the Border Roads Organization
(2) According to general classification
(3) According to use
10-4. Basic principles of planning of hill roads

(1) Construction work (4) Master plan
(2) Existing routes (5) Natural climatic conditions
(3) Intensity of traffic (6) Use of contours
10-5. Method of surveying
(1) Delay in work (4) Man-power
(2) Details of area (5) Remote areas
(3) Information
10-6. Alignment of hill roads
10-7. Geometric standards of hill roads
(1) Widths of carriageway, shoulder, roadway and land
(2) Camber
(3) Stopping sight distance
(4) Overtaking sight distance
(5) Gradients
(6) Super-elevation
(7) Radius of horizontal curve
(8) Widening at curves
(9) Transition curves
(10) Hairpin bends
(11) Cut slopes
(12) Setback distance
(13) Passing places
(14) Vertical clearance
(15) Lateral clearance
10-8. Protective works for hill roads
(1) Retaining walls (3) Parapet walls
(2) Breast walls
10-9. Drainage in hill roads
(1) Sub-surface drainage (2) Surface drainage
10-10. Maintenance of hill roads
(1) Control of avalanches
(2) Drainage structures
(3) Prevention of land slides
(4) Snow clearance
QUESTIONS 10


Chapter 11 HIGHWAY DRAINAGE

11-1. General
11-2. Sources of water entering the road structure
(1) Capillary action of water
(2) Floods
(3) Rain water falling on road surface
(4) Rain water from surrounding area
11-3. Defects due to improper highway drainage
11-4. Requirements of good highway drainage system
(1) Adjoining land
(2) Camber
(3) Cross-drainage works
(4) Gradient
(5) Highest flood level
(6) Intercepting drains
(7) Side drains
(8) Underground sources of water
(9) Water-logged areas
(10) Water table
11-5. Surface drainage
(1) Side drains for road in embankment
(2) Side drains for road in cutting
(3) Design of side drains
11-6. Drainage of city or urban roads
(1) Catch basins (2) Inlets
11-7. Sub-surface drainage
(1) Causes of changes in moisture content
(2) Situations requiring sub-surface drainage
(3) Methods of sub-surface drainage
11-8. Design of filter for drainage trenches
(1) Permeability ratio (2) Piping ratio
11-9. Road construction in waterlogged areas
(1) Control of capillary (4) Sand drains
(2) Pavement thickness (5) Sub-surface drainage system
(3) Raising the road level
QUESTIONS 11


Chapter 12 HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE

12-1. General
12-2. Causes of failure of pavements
(1) Failures in flexible pavements
(2) Failures in rigid pavements
12-3. Typical flexible pavement failures
(1) Alligator or map cracking
(2) Consolidation of pavement layers
(3) Formation of waves
(4) Frost heaving
(5) Lack of binding with the lower course
(6) Longitudinal cracking
(7) Reflection cracking
(8) Shear failure
12-4. Typical rigid pavement failures
(1) Mud pumping
(2) Scaling of cement concrete
(3) Shrinkage cracks
(4) Spalling of joints
(5) Structural cracks
(6) Warping cracks
12-5. Maintenance of earth roads
(1) Normal maintenance
(2) Preventive maintenance
12-6. Maintenance of gravel roads
(1) Normal repairs (2) Periodical renewal
12-7. Maintenance of W.B.M. roads
(1) Fast moving vehicles
(2) Grinding of stones
(3) Hoofs of the animals
(1) Normal repairs
(2) Surface renewal
12-8. Maintenance of bituminous roads
(1) Patch repairs
(2) Preventing skidding of vehicles
(3) Reducing reflection cracking
(4) Stripping and ravelling
(5) Waves and corrugations
12-9. Maintenance of cement concrete roads
(1) Maintenance of joints
(2) Mud jacking
(3) Patch repairs
(4) Treatment of cracks
12-10. Pavement evaluation
(1) Poor riding quality
(2) Slipperiness
(3) Structural deterioration
(4) Other surface deterioration
12-11. Strengthening of existing pavements
12-12. Important principles in road improvement
(1) Economy of road improvement
(2) Use of low cost roads
(3) Wear of roads
12-13. Benefits of improved highways
QUESTIONS 12


Chapter 13 HIGHWAY MAKING MACHINERIES

13-1. General
13-2. Excavating equipments
(1) Tractor (5) Excavators
(2) Bulldozer and (6) Dredgers
angle-dozers (7) Ripper or rooter
(3) Grader or scarifier
(4) Scraper (8) Trencher or ditcher
13-3. Compacting equipments
(1) Road rollers
(2) Vibratory compactors
(3) Earth rammers
(4) Jetting and pounding
13-4. EquipmentS for bituminous roads
(1) Bitumen heaters (3) Bitumen truck mixers
(2) Bitumen mixers (4) Pavers

13-5. EquipmentS for cement concrete roads
(1) Batching plant
(2) Concrete mixer
(3) Vibrating screed
(4) Internal vibrator
(5) Float
(6) Straight edge
(7) Belt
(8) Fibre brush
(9) Miscellaneous
13-6. Travelling plant
QUESTIONS 13


Chapter 14 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

14-1. General
14-2. Objects of traffic engineering
14-3. Traffic surveys
14-3-1. Accident survey
14-3-2. Origin and destination (O & D) survey
(1) House interview method
(2) License plate method
(3) Postal questionnaire method
(4) Route interview method
(5) Tag-on-car method
14-3-3. Parking survey
(1) Parking accumulation
(2) Parking duration
(3) Parking load
(4) Parking turnover
(5) Parking volume
14-3-4. Spot speed survey
14-3-5. Speed and delay survey
14-3-6. Traffic volume survey
(1) Objects of traffic volume survey
(2) Methods of traffic volume survey
(3) Information collected in traffic volume survey
(4) Uses of traffic volume survey
14-4. Road accidents
14-4-1. Causes of road accidents
(1) Defective vehicles (5) Pedestrians
(2) Drivers (6) Road design
(3) Moving of animals (7) Traffic volume
(4) Passengers (8) Weather
14-4-2. Measures to prevent road accidents
(1) Educational methods
(2) Enforcement methods
(3) Engineering methods
14-5. Parking
(1) Kerb or on-street parking
(2) Off-street parking
14-6. Methods of parking
14-7. Traffic congestion
(1) General public
(2) Road users
(3) Transport personnel
14-8. Traffic control
14-9. One-way streets
14-9-1. Advantages of one-way streets
(1) Improvement in pedestrian movements
(2) Improving safety
(3) Increasing average speed
(4) Increasing capacity
(5) Night traffic
(6) Reduction in accidents
(7) Traffic control
14-9-2. Disadvantages of one-way streets
(1) Effect on certain types of trade
(2) Operational difficulties
(3) Safety problems
14-10. Road junctions or intersections
(1) General
(2) Factors in design and operation

14-11. Types of intersections
14-11-1.At-grade intersections
(1) All-paved or unchannelized intersections
(2) Channelized intersections
(3) Roundabouts or rotaries
14-11-2.Grade separations
(1) Direct ramp (3) Indirect ramp
(2) Semi-direct ramp
14-12. Traffic control devices
14-12-1.Road markings
14-12-2.Road signs
(1) Purposes of road signs
(2) Limitations of road signs
(3) Design and location of road signs
(4) Types of road signs
14-12-3.Traffic signals
(1) Advantages of traffic signals
(2) Limitations of traffic signals
(3) Modern development
14-12-4.Speed breakers
QUESTIONS 14


Chapter 15 HIGHWAY ARBORICULTURE AND LIGHTING

15-1. General
15-2. Highway arboriculture
15-3. Spacing of trees
(1) Distance from edge of road
(2) Location of trees
(3) Planting on both sides
15-4. Types of trees
15.5 Planting operations
(1) Excavation of pits
(2) Preparation of seedlings
(3) Transplanting of seedlings
(4) Protection of young plants
(5) Watering
(6) Numbering of trees
15.6. Maintenance of trees
(1) Disposal of dead and fallen trees
(2) Disposal of fruits for fruit-bearing trees
(3) Protection against pests
(4) Pruning and lopping of branches
15-7. Highway lighting
15.8. Design factors of highway lighting
(1) Contrast
(2) Glare
(3) Lamps
(4) Lateral placement of lighting poles
(5) Lighting layouts
(6) Luminaires distribution of light
(7) Mounting height and overhang
(8) Spacing of lighting units
15-9. Benefits of highway lighting
(1) Appreciation by police forces
(2) Increase in business
(3) Planning
(4) Recreation centres
(5) Reduction in night-time accident rate
(6) Reduction in serious crimes
15-10. Cost considerations of highway lighting
(1) Design variables
(2) Roadway variables

(3) Miscellaneous variables
(1) Design variables
(2) Roadway variables
(3) Miscellaneous variables
QUESTIONS 15


Chapter 16 HIGHWAY ECONOMICS

16-1. General
16-2. Qualifications of an administrator
16-3. Economics and economy
16-4. Engineering economy
16-5. Principles of economic analysis
(1) Analyse all the alternatives
(2) Analyse with and without the proposed project
(3) Compare alternatives by their differences
(4) Consider all consequences
(5) Discount all costs and returns to same time period
(6) Disregard past investments
(7) Ignore the method of financing
(8) Use the same analysis period for each alternative
16-6. Application of economic analysis to highways
(1) Project evaluation
(2) Project formulation
16-7. Methods of economic analysis
(1) Equivalent uniform annual cost method (EUAC)
(2) Present worth of costs method (PWOC)
(3) Equivalent uniform annual net return method (EUANR)
(4) Net present value method (NPV)
(5) Benefit/cost ratio method (B/C)
(6) Rate of return method (ROR)
(7) Cost effectiveness method (CE)
16-7-1. Points to be remembered for economic analysis
16-7-2. Choice of method for economic analysis
(1) Character of the proposed project
(2) Experience of the analyst
(3) Necessity of decision maker
16-8. Highway costs and consequences
16-8-1. Highway costs
16-8.2. Highway consequences
(1) User consequences
(2) Non-user consequences
16-9. Highway finance
16-10. Highway administration
QUESTIONS 16


Appendix A TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS

A-1. Mandatory/regulatory signs
(1) Stop and give way signs
(2) Prohibitory signs
(3) No parking and no stopping signs
(4) Speed limit and vehicle control signs
(5) Restriction ends sign
(6) Compulsory direction control and other signs
A-2. Typical cautionary/warning signs
A-3. Informatory signs
(1) Direction and place identification signs
(2) Facility information signs
(3) Other useful information signs
(4) Parking signs
A-4. Traffic Lights


Appendix B ABBREVIATED TERMS


Index

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