Highway Engineering By Rangwala


By Rangwala

12th Edition 2022
ISBN : 9789385039577
Binding : Paperback
Pages : 568 + 24 = 592
Size (mm) : 235 × 25 × 170
Weight : 730 g

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Highway Engineering is a specialised subject within the discipline of Transportation Engineering which deals with the design, methods of construction, planning, alignment and maintenance of highways and more connected with the subject of highway engineering.

Plenty of new matter, numerous examples, useful tables and figures have been added in this edition. Almost all the drawings are replaced with more detailing. Few chapters are entirely rewritten with the inclusion of the latest developments in the field. Some chapters are revised according to the latest I.R.C. codes. So many topics, matter and chapters are re-grouped and rearranged.

The outline of the book is:
Chapter 1 deals with introduction to highway engineering, scope, history of road construction, developments of roads in India at various stages and about the Indian institutions for highway.
Chapter 2 discusses highway planning and alignment.
Chapter 3 explains geometric design of highways.
Chapter 4 Whole new chapter on “Subgrade Soil” is added which discusses every facet of soil support to road pavement and also some methods of soil testing.
Chapter 5 is about highway materials and testing.
Chapter 6 through 10 deal with design of highway pavements. low cost roads, bituminous as well as cement concrete roads (high cost roads) and other types of highway pavements respectively.
Chapter 11 describes hill roads.
Chapter 12 and 13 elucidate highway drainage as well as highway failure and maintenance.
Chapter 14 emphasis on the topics of highway arboriculture and lighting.
Chapter 15 focuses on all aspects about highway economics.
Chapter 16 on “Highway Making Machinery” is extensively enlarged with additions of various machineries used in the highway construction.
Chapter 17 gives topics on traffic engineering.

The book is divided into seventeen well-arranged chapters: therein it contains —
* 315 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches
*   57 Illustrative problems
*   89 Important tables
* 451 Typical questions at the end of each chapter.

The book in the present form will prove to be extremely useful to the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering of all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S., and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also be an immense use to practicing Civil Engineers.

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1 : Introduction
2 : Highway planning and alignment
3 : Geometric design of Highways
4 : Subgrade Soil
5 : Highway Materials And Testing
6 : Design Of Highway Pavements
7 : Low cost roads
8 : Bituminous roads (high cost roads)
9 : Cement concrete roads (high cost roads)
10 : Other types Of Pavements
11 : Hill roads
12 : Highway drainage
13 : Highway failures and maintenance
14 : Highway arboriculture and Lighting
15 : Highway economics
16 : Highway Making machineries
17 : Traffic Engineering

Content Details

1-1. General
1-2. Scope of highway and transportation engineering
1-3. History of road construction
(1)Roman roads
(2)Tresaguet construction
(3)Metcalf construction
(4)Telford construction
(5)Macadam construction
1-4. Modes of transportation
(1)Transportation by land
(2)Transportation by water
(i)Inland water transportation
(ii)Ocean water transportation
(3)Transportation by air
1-5. Characteristics of road transport
1-6. Advantages of roads
1-7. Requirements of an ideal road
1-8. Development of roads in India
1-8-1. Roads in ancient India
1-8-2. Roads in mughal period
1-8-3. Road development during British rule
1-8-4. Road development in free India
1-9. Rural road development in India
(1)Pradhan mantri gram sadak yojana (PMGSY)
(2)Implementation of the PMGSY
(3)A programme implementation unit (PIU)
(4)District rural roads plan
(5)State level standing committee
1-10. Urban road development in india
(1)National highway act (1956)
(2)Vision 2021 for road development
1-11. Importance of roads in India
1-12. Indian institutions for highway
(1)Indian road congress (I.R.C.)
(2)National highway authority of india (NHAI)
(3)Ministry of road transport and highways (MORTH)
(i)road wing
(ii)transport wing
(4)Central road research institute (CRRI)
(5)Border roads organization (BRO)
(6)Highway research board (HRB)
Questions 1
2-1. General
2-2. Objects of highway planning
2-3. Classification of urban roads
(1)Arterial roads
(2)Sub-arterial roads
(3)Local roads
2-4. Types of roads
(1)Depending on use during Different seasons
(i)All-weather roads
(ii)Fair weather roads
(2)Based on the type of the carriage way
(i)Paved roads
(ii)Unpaved roads
(3)Based on the type of pavement surface
(i)Surface roads
(ii)Unsurfaced roads
2-5. Types of road systems
(1)Rectangular street system
(2)Rectangular with superimposed diagonals street system
(3)Concentric street system
(4)Radial street system
(5)Combination of radial and rectangular street system
2-6. Through and by-pass roads
2-7. Outer and inner ring roads
2-8. Freeways
(1)Access from adjacent properties
(2)Design and construction
(3)Entrances and exits
(4)Intersections at grade
(6)Traffic control
(i)Recurrent delay
(ii)Non-recurrent delay
2-9. Precincts
2-10. Requirements of a good urban road
2-11. Classification of highways
2-11-1. According to location and function
(1)National highways (NH)
(2)State highways (SH)
(3)Major divstrict roads (MDR)
(4)Other district roads (ODR)
(5)Village roads (VR)
2-11-2. According to traffic
(1)Character of traffic
(2)Designed speed
(3)Traffic density
2-11-3. According to transported tonnage
2-12. Modified classification of highways by
third 20-years road development plan (1981-2001)
(1)Primary system
(ii)Express highways
(2)Secondary system
(3)Tertiary system
2-13. Bot projects for highways
(i)Advantages of bot projects are as follows
(ii)Disadvantages of bot projects are as follows
2-14. Formulas for road lengths
(1)First 20-year road plan (1943-61) or nagpur road plan
(i)First category
(ii)Second category
(2)Second 20-year road plan (1961-81) or bombay road plan
(3)Third 20-year road plan (1981-2001) or lucknow road plan
(1)For national highway (NH)
(2)For state highway (SH)
(3)For major district roads (MDR)
(4)Total length of all categories of roads
2-15. Saturation system
2-16. Highway alignment
2-17. Factors affecting highway alignment
(1)Availability of road building materials
(3)Geological features
(4)Land acquisition
(5)Easy grades and curves
(6)Obligatory points
(i)Points which are to be
accommodated on road alignment
(ii)Points which are to be avoided on road alignment
(7)Proper drainage
2-18. Planning surveys
(1)Economic studies
(2)Engineering studies

(3)Financial studies
(4)Traffic studies
2-19. Engineering surveys
2-19-1. Reconnaissance survey
(1)Objects of reconnaissance survey
(2)Importance of reconnaissance survey
(3)Information gathered in reconnaissance survey
(i)Traffic reconnaissance survey
(ii)Engineering reconnaissance survey
(4)Factors to be kept in view during reconnaissance survey
(iii)Existing roads
(iv)Ocular illusions
(vi)Starting of route
(vii)Survey route
(5)Instruments for reconnaissance survey
(i)Abney level
(ii)Aneroid barometer
(iv)Prismatic compass
(v)Strong binocular or telescope
2-19-2. Preliminary survey
(1)Object of preliminary survey
(2)Importance of preliminary survey
(3)Work of preliminary survey
(4)Instruments for preliminary survey
2-19-3. Location survey
(1)Object of location survey
(2)Importance of location survey
(3)Work of location survey
(i)Paper location
(ii)Field location
(4)Instruments for location survey
2-20. Project report and drawings
(1)Highway project report
(i)Preliminary details
(ii)Road features
(iii)Road design specification
(iv)Drainage facilities including cross-drainage structure
(v)Materials, labour and equipment
(vi)Rates and estimate
(vii)Construction programming
(viii)Miscellaneous items
(i)Detailed drawings
(ii)Index map
(iii)Key map
(iv)Land acquisition plans
(v)Preliminary survey plans
2-21. Highway re-alignment projects
2-22. Works of re-alignment
2-23. General principles of re-alignment
(1)Entire alignment
(2)Major bridges
(3)Over-bridges and under-bridges
2-24. Procedure of re-alignment projects
Questions 2


3-1. General
3-2. Road structure
3-3. Width of pavement or carriageway
3-4. Traffic separators or medians
3-5. Kerbs
(1)Class I kerbs
(2)Class II kerbs
(3)Class III kerbs
3-6. Road margins
(1)Cycle tracks
(3)Embankment slopes
(5)Frontage roads
(6)Guard rails
(7)Parking lanes
3-7. Width of roadway or formation
3-8. Right of way
3-9. Typical cross-sections of roads
3-10. Camber
(3)Rate of camber
(4)Shapes of camber
(i)Parabolic camber
(ii)Straight line camber
(iii)Combined camber
(5)Camber boards
3-11. Design speed
(1)Class of road
(2)Class of terrain
3-12. Stopping sight distance (SSD)
(i)Features of the road ahead
(ii)Height of driver’s eye above the road surface
(iii)Height of the object above the road surface
(3)Factors affecting SSD
(i)Efficiency of brakes
(ii)Frictional resistance between the road and tyres
(iii)Slope of the road surface
(iv)Speed of vehicle
(v)Total reaction time of the driver
(4)Length of SSD
3-13. Intermediate sight distance
3-14. Headlight sight distance
3-15. Overtaking sight distance
3-16. Overtaking zones
3-17. Sight distance (SD) at intersections
(1)Change of speed
(2)Coming to stop
(3)Importance of roads
3-18. Road gradient
(2)Factors affecting road gradient
(i)Access to adjoining properties
(iv)Nature of traffic
(v)Obligatory points
(vi)Topography of country

(3)Types of gradients
(i)Average gradient
(ii)Exceptional gradient
(iii)Floating gradient
(iv)Limiting gradient
(v)Minimum gradient
(iv)Ruling gradient
3-19. Grade compensation on horizontal curves
3-20. Super-elevation
(2)Advantages of super-elevation
(3)Calculation of super-elevation
(4)Minimum and maximum super-elevation
(5)Methods of providing super-elevation
(i)First stage
(ii)Second stage
3-21. Horizontal curves
(2)Objections to curvature
(3)Factors affecting the design of curves
(4)Radius of horizontal curve
(5)Widening of pavement on horizontal curves
(6)Types of horizontal curves
(i)Circular curves
(ii)Transition curves
3-22. Vertical curves
(1)Summit or convex curves
(2)Valley or sag or concave curves
3-22-1. Equation of vertical curve
3-22-2. Length of vertical curve
(1)Permissible rate of change of grade
(2)Stopping sight distance
3-22-3. Length of summit curve
(1)When l > SSD
(2)When l < SSD
(3)When l > OSD
(4)When l < OSD
3-23. Length of valley curves
(1)Factors to be considered in the design of valley curves
(ii)Impact-free movement of vehicles
(iii)Stopping sight distance
(2)Criteria to be considered in design the length of valley curve
(1)L > SSD
(2)L < SSD
3-24. Vertical curve passing through a fixed point

Questions 3


4-1. Significance of subgrade soil
4-2. Soil survey
(1)Stages for soil survey
(2)Objects of soil survey
4-3. Characteristics or properties of soil
(1)Centrifuge moisture equivalent
(3)Drainage and compaction
(4)Field moisture equivalent
(5)Grain shape
(6)Lineal shrinkage and volumetric change
(7)Particle sizes distribution and gradation
(i)Uniformly-graded soil
(ii)Well-graded soil
(iii)Poorly-graded soil
(iv)Gap-graded or skip-graded soil
(9)Specific gravity
(10)State of compaction
4-4. Consistency or atterberg limits
(i)Liquid limit (WL)
(ii)Plasitc limit (WP)
(iii)Shrinkage limit (WS)
(1)Plasticity index (IP)
(2)Shrinkage index (IS)
(3)Liquidity index (IL)
(4)Consistency index (ic)
4-5. Soil classification systems
(1)Grain or particle size classification
(2)Textural classification
(3)Highway research board classification of
soil (aasho classification)
(4)Unified soil classification
(5)Indian standards soil classification
(i)Coarse grained soils
(ii)Fine grained soils
4-6. Field identification of soil
(1)Field identification of coarse grained soils
(2)Field identification of fine grained soils
(i)Dilatancy test
(ii)Toughness test
(iii)Dry strength test
(iv)Other tests
4-7. Soil investigation
4-8. Sub-soil exploration
(1)Location of bore-holes
(2)Depth of exploration
4-9. Methods of site exploration
(1)Test pits
(3)Auger boring
(4)Wash boring
(5)Sub-surface soundings
(6)Test piles
(7)Deep boring
(i)Percussion boring machine
(ii)Core or rotary drilling machine
(8)Geophysical method
(i)Electrical resistivity method
(ii)Seismic refraction method
4-10. Choice of the method
(1)Cost of exploration
(2)Nature of ground
(i)Clayey soils
(iii)Sandy soils
4-11. Subgrade soil strength
(1)Load bearing capacity
(2)Moisture content
(3)Shrinkage and/or swelling
(i)Share tests
(ii)Bearing tests
(iii)Penetration tests
4-12. California bearing ratio (C.B.R.) test
4-12-1. Apparatus for C.B.R. test
(1)Detachable base plate
(2)Spacer disk
(3)Filter papers
(4)C.B.R. Cylindrical mould
(5)Detachable collar
(6)Annular weight
(7)Slotted weights
(8)Cutting blade
(9)Penetration plunger
(10)Compaction rammer
(12)C.B.R. Load testing machine

4-12-2. Procedure for C.B.R. test
(1)Preparing remoulded test specimen
(2)Preparing undisturbed test specimen
(3)Prepare three/five layer light/
heavy compacted soil specimen respectively for C.B.R. test
(4)Soaking of test specimen
(5)Calculating expansion ratio
(6)Carrying out penetration test on C.B.R. load testing machine
(7)Finding out C.B.R. value
(8)Load-penetration curve
(9)Determine moisture content
4-13. Bearing capacity of soil
(1)Ultimate or maximum safe bearing capacity (QP)
(2)Gross ultimate bearing capacity (QU)
(3)Net ultimate bearing capacity (QNU)
(4)Net safe bearing capacity (QNS)
(5)Gross safe bearing capacity (QS)
(6)Allowable bearing pressure (QNA)
4-14. Plate load test
(1)Procedure to carry out the plate load test
(2)Limitations of plate load test
(i)Size effect
(ii)Scale effect
(iii)Time effect
(iv)Reaction load
(v)Water table
(vi)Interpretation of failure load
4-15. K-value test or plate bearing test
(2)Equipment for K-value test setup
(i)Bearing plates
(ii)Counter weight or loading attachments
(iii)Hydraulic jack or load cell with pressure gauge
(iv)Proving ring
(v)Dial gauges
(vi)Reference beams
(3)Test setup
(4)Advantages of K-value or plate bearing test
(5)Disadvantages of K-value or plate bearing test

Questions 4


5-1. General
5-2. Classification of aggregates based on unit weight
(i)Normal weight aggregates
(ii)Light weight aggregate
(iii)Heavy weight aggregate
(1)Natural aggregates
(i)Crushed rock aggregate
(2)Artificial aggregates
5-3. Classification of aggregates based on size
(1)Fine aggregates
(2)Coarse aggregates
5-4. Classification of aggregates based on shape
(1)Rounded aggregates
(2)Irregular shaped aggregates
(3)Angular aggregates
(4)Flaky aggregates
(5)Elongated aggregates
5-5. Classification of aggregates based on texture
5-6. Requirements of a good road aggregate
(1)Adhesion with bitumen
5-7. Tests for road aggregates
5-7-1. Abrasion test
(1)Deval abrasion test
(2)Dorry abrasion test
(3)Los angeles abrasion test
5-7-2. Crushing test
5-7-3. Grading of aggregates
(1)Fineness modulus (F.M.)
(2)Gap grading
5-7-4. Impact test
(1)The page impact test
(2)The aggregate impact test
5-7-5. Shape test
(1)Angularity number
(2)Elongation index
(iii)Flaky and elongated particles
(3)Flakiness index
5-7-6. Soundness test
5-7-7. Specific gravity and water absorption test
5-7-8. Stripping value test
5-8. Bituminous materials
(i)Natural asphalt
(ii)Residual asphalt
(i)Fractional distillation
(ii)Destructive distillation
(3)Cutback bitumen
(4)Bitumen emulsion
(6)Road oil
5-9. Functions of bituminous materials
(1)Binding effect
(3)Resistance to weathering agencies
(4)Sealing of surface
5-10. Tests for bituminous materials
(1)Ductility test
(2)Flash and fire point test
(3)Float test
(4)Loss on heating test
(5)Penetration test
(6)Softening point test
(7)Solubility test
(8)Specific gravity test
(i)Pycnometer method
(ii)Balance method
(9)Spot test
(10)Viscosity test
(11)Water content test
5-11. Test for cement
5-11-1. Field tests for cement
(2)Physical properties
(3)Presence of lumps
5-11-2. Laboratory tests for cement
(1)When cement is loose
(2)When cement is in bags
(1)Chemical composition
(i)Ratio of percentage of alumina to that of iron oxide
(ii)Ratio of percentage of lime to those of alumina,
iron oxide and silica
(iii)Total loss on ignition
(iv)Total sulphur content
(v)Weight of insoluble residue
(vi)Weight of magnesia
(3)Compressive strength
(4)Tensile strength
(6)Setting times
(i)Initial setting time
(ii)Final setting time
5-12. Test for bulking of sand
5-13. Test for workability of concrete
5-13-1. Slump test
5-13-2. Compaction factor test
5-13-3. Vee-bee test

Questions 5


6-1. General
(2)Problems involved in the design of pavement
(3)Requirements of an ideal pavement
6-2. Selection of a pavement
6-3. Types of pavement
(1)Flexible pavements
(i)Soil subgrade
(ii)Sub-base course
(iii)Base course
(iv)Surface course
(2)Rigid pavements
6-4. Factors affecting the design of pavements
(4)Pavement materials
(5)Subgrade soil
(7)Design life
(8)Design wheel load
6-5. Design of bituminous paving mixes
(1)Marshall method of mix design
(2)Hveem method of mix design
6-6. Design of flexible pavements
(1)Design requirements for flexible pavements
(2)Design methods
6-6-1. Analytical methods of flexible pavement
(1)Boussinesq’s theory
(2)Burmister’s theory
6-6-2. Empirical methods of flexible pavement
(1)Group index (G.I.) Method
(2)California bearing ratio (C.B.R.) Method
(3)Methods based on pavement performance
(i)Aashto method
(ii)Asphalt institute method
6-7. Design of rigid pavements
(1)Plain concrete
(2)Reinforced concrete
(3)Continuously reinforced concrete
(4)Prestressed concrete
6-8. Design parameters for rigid pavements
(1)Traffic parameters
(i)Design wheel load
(ii)Traffic intensity
(2)Environmental parameters
(i)Temperature differential
(3)Foundation strength
(4)Foundation surface characteristics
(5)Characteristics of concrete Strength
(6)Modulus of elasticity and poisson’s ratio
(7)Co-efficient of thermal expansion
(8)Design of slab thickness
(i)Stress conditions
(ii)Analysis of stresses
6-9. I.R.C. Recommended design procedure
Questions 6


7-1. General
7-2. Classification of low cost roads
(1)Earth roads
(i)Method of construction
(ii)Points to be considered during construction
(iii)Advantages of earth roads
(iv)Disadvantages of earth roads
(2)Kankar roads
(3)Gravel roads
(ii)Method of construction
(iii)Advantages of gravel roads
(iv)Disadvantages of gravel roads
(4)Moorum roads
(5)Traffic bound macadam roads
(6)Water bound macadam (W.B.M.) Roads
(ii)Materials required for W.B.M. Roads
(iii)Method of construction
(iv)Advantages of W.B.M. Roads
(v)Disadvantages of W.B.M. Roads
7-3. Dust prevention
(1)Application of road oil
(2)Sprinkling with water
(3)Tar or asphalt surfacing
(4)Use of hygroscopic material
7-4. Soil stabilization
(2)Objects of soil stabilization
(3)Mechanics or principles of soil stabilization
7-5. Soil stabilizers
(1)Bituminous materials
(2)Cementing agents
(3)Chemical stabilizers
7-6. Methods of soil stabilization
(1)Mechanical stabilization
(2)Bituminous stabilization
(3)Cement stabilization
(4)Lime fly ash stabilization
(5)Chemical stabilization
(6)Miscellaneous methods of stabilization
(i)Complex stabilization
(ii)Electrical stabilization
(iv)Oil stabilization
7-7. Special problems in soil stabilization work
(1)Choice of method of stabilization
(2)Design of the stabilized mix
(3)Thickness of layer
7-8. Problems of soil stabilization of
roads in black cotton soil and desert sand
(1)Stabilization of black cotton soil
(2)Stabilization of desert sand

Questions 7


8-1. General
8-2. Advantages of bituminous roads
8-3. Disadvantages of bituminous roads
8-4. Bituminous materials
8-5. Methods of application of bituminous materials
(1)Surface dressing
(2)Prime coat
(3)Tack coat
(4)Seal coat
(ii)Advantages of the premix method
(iii)Various premix methods of construction
(7)Road-mix and travel-plant mix
(8)Hot premix and cold premix
8-6. Construction of bituminous roads
(1)Surface dressing with single coat
(i)Preparation of road surface
(ii)Application of bitumen
(iii)Spreading the stone chippings
(2)Surface dressing with two coats
(i)Application of second coat
(ii)Spreading the stone chippings
(iii)Rolling and finishing
(3)Full grout surface of 50 mm and 75 mm thicknesses
(i)Preparation of existing road surface
(ii)Spreading the coarse aggregates
(iii)Applying the binder
(iv)Spreading the blindage
(vi)Applying seal coat
(vii)Opening to traffic
(4)Semi-grout surface of 50 mm thickness
(i)Preparation of surface
(ii)Spreading the coarse aggregates
(iii)Applying the binder and blindage
(v)Applying seal coat and opening for traffic
(5)Bitumen bound macadam
(i)Preparation of existing layer
(ii)Application of tack coat
(iii)Preparation of premix
(iv)Placing the mix on road surface
(6)Bituminous carpet of thickness about 20 mm to 25 mm
(i)Preparation of the base course
(ii)Application of tack coat or prime coat
(iii)Preparation and placing of premix
(iv)Application of seal coat
(7)Bituminous concrete
(i)Preparation of the existing base course layer
(ii)Preparation and placing of premix
(8)Sheet asphalt of 25 mm thickness
(i)Preparation of road surface
(ii)Preparation of mix
(iii)Placing the mix
(iv)Rolling and finishing
8-7. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) pavements
8-7-1. General
8-7-2. Effect of HMA on environment
8-7-3. Advantages of reducing temperature of HMA
8-7-4. HMA pavement with hydrated lime
8-7-5. Warm mix asphalt
8-7-6. The future of warm-mix asphalt

Questions 8

9-1. General
9-2. Advantages of cement concrete roads
9-3. Disadvantages of cement concrete roads
9-4. Comparison between bituminous concrete
roads and cement concrete roads
9-5. Methods of construction of cement concrete roads
(1)Alternate bay method
(2)Continuous bay method
(3)Expansion joint and strip method
9-6. Construction procedure for cement concrete roads
(1)Preparation of subgrade and sub-base
(2)Placing of forms
(3)Watering the prepared subgrade or sub-base
(4)Mixing and placing of concrete
(5)Compaction and finishing
(6)Belting, brooming and edging
(8)Opening to traffic
9-7. Joints in cement concrete roads
(1)Reasons for providing joints
(i)To absorb expansion and
contraction due to variation in temperature
(ii) To avoid warping of slab at edges
(iii) To grant facility in construction
(2)Requirements of a good joint
(3)Types of joints
(i)Longitudinal joints
(ii)Transverse joints
9-8. Arrangements of transverse joints
(1)Uniform spacing
(2)Staggered spacing
(3)Skew spacing
9-9. Design of dowel bars
9-10. Design procedure
9-11. Joint fillers and sealers
(1)Joint filters
(2)Joint sealers
9-12. Other forms of cement concrete roads
(1)Bonded concrete roads
(i)Preparation of the surface
(ii)Placing the wiremesh in position
(iii)Depositing concrete
(v)Transverse joints
(2)Cement macadam roads
(i)Preparation of road surface
(ii)Layer of sand
(iii)Placing of forms
(iv)Placing the first layer of metal
(v)Spreading the dry mortar
(vi)Placing the second layer of metal
(vii)Application of water
(3)Colloidal concrete roads
(i)Placing of the aggregate
(ii)Preparation of cement grout
(5)Prestressed concrete roads
(6)R.C.C. Roads
(7)Rolled concrete roads

Questions 9


10-1. General
10-2. Brick pavements
(1)Brick and block pavement
(i)Preparation of subgrade
(ii)Preparation of the foundation or base course
(iii)Placing of the cushion
(iv)Laying and rolling
(v)Joint filling
(2)Vitrified brick pavement
(3)Brick edging
10-3. Stone pavements
10-4. Wooden block pavements
(1)Preparation of rigid and smooth foundation
(2)Laying of blocks
(3)Surface dressing
(i)Rigid foundation essential
(ii)Swelling due to moisture
10-5. Asphaltic block pavements
10-6. Cast-iron block pavements
10-7. Rubber block pavements
10-8. Cement concrete block pavements
Questions 10

Chapter 11 HILL ROADS

11-1. General
11-2. Importance of hill roads
(1)Development in stages
(2)Initial cost
(i)Economic development
(ii)Forest wealth
(iii)Industrial development
(iv)Strategic considerations
11-3. Classification of hill roads
(1)According to the border roads organization
(2)According to general classification
(3)According to use
(i)Motor roads
(ii)Bridle paths
(iii)Village tracks
11-4. Basic principles of planning of hill roads
(1)Construction work
(2)Existing routes
(3)Intensity of traffic
(4)Master plan
(5)Natural climatic conditions
(6)Use of contours
11-5. Method of surveying
(1)Delay in work
(2)Details of area
(5)Remote areas
11-6. Alignment of hill roads
11-7. Geometric standards of hill roads
(1)Widths of carriageway, shoulder, roadway and land
(3)Stopping sight distance (SSD)
(4)Overtaking sight distance
(7)Radius of horizontal curve
(8)Widening at curves
(9)Transition curves
(10)Hairpin bends
(11)Cut slopes
(12)Setback distance
(13)Passing places
(14)Vertical clearance
(15)Lateral clearance
11-8. Protective works for hill roads
(1)Retaining walls
(2)Breast walls
(3)Parapet walls
11-9. Drainage in hill roads
(1)Sub-surface drainage
(2)Surface drainage
11-10. Maintenance of hill roads
(1)Control of avalanches
(2)Drainage structures
(3)Prevention of land slides
(4)Snow clearance
Questions 11


12-1. General
12-2. Sources of water entering the road structure
(1)Capillary action of water
(3)Rain water falling on road surface
(4)Rain water from surrounding area
12-3. Importance of drainage
12-4. Requirements of good highway drainage system
(1)Adjoining land
(3)Cross-drainage works
(5)Highest flood level
(6)Intercepting drains
(7)Side drains
(8)Underground sources of water
(9)Water-logged areas
(10)Water table
12-5. Surface drainage
(1)Side drains for road in embankment
(2)Side drains for road in cutting
(3)Design of side drains
(i)Hydrologic analysis
(ii)Hydraulic analysis
12-6. Surface drainage of city or urban roads
(1)Catch basins
12-7. Sub-surface drainage
(1)Causes of changes in moisture content
(2)Situations requiring sub-surface drainage
(3)Methods of sub-surface drainage
(i)Methods to control capillary rise
(ii)Methods to control seepage flow
(iii)Methods to lower water table
12-8. Design of filter for drainage trenches
(1)Permeability ratio
(2)Piping ratio
12-9. Road construction in waterlogged areas
(1)Control of capillary rise
(2)Pavement thickness
(3)Raising the road level
(4)Sand drains
(5)Sub-surface drainage system

Questions 12


13-1. General
13-2. Causes of failure of pavements
(1)Failures in flexible pavements
(i)Failures in subgrade
(ii)Failures in sub-base or base courses
(iii)Failures in wearing course
(2)Failures in rigid pavements
(i)Deficiency of pavement materials
(ii)Structural inadequacy
13-3. Typical flexible pavement failures
(1)Alligator or map cracking
(2)Consolidation of pavement layers
(3)Formation of waves
(4)Frost heaving
(5)Lack of binding with the lower course
(6)Longitudinal cracking
(7)Reflection cracking
(8)Shear failure
13-4. Typical rigid pavement failures
(1)Mud pumping
(2)Scaling of cement concrete
(3)Shrinkage cracks
(4)Spalling of joints
(5)Structural cracks
(6)Warping cracks
13-5. Maintenance of earth roads
(1)Normal maintenance
(i)Damaged road surface
(ii)Road surface proper
(iii)Side drains
(iv)Stumps and rocks
(2)Preventive maintenance
(i)Control of moisture content
(ii)Restricting traffic after rains
13-6. Maintenance of gravel roads
(1)Normal repairs
(i)Repairs to pot holes and ruts
(ii)Upkeep of surface
(2)Periodical renewal
13-7. Maintenance of w.B.M. Roads
(1)Fast moving vehicles
(2)Grinding of stones
(3)Hoofs of the animals
(1)Normal repairs
(i)Cleaning of surface
(ii)Repairs to pot holes and ruts
(iii)Replacement of blindage
(2)Surface renewal
13-8. Maintenance of bituminous roads
(1)Patch repairs
(i)Marking the patches
(ii)Cutting and digging
(iii)Filling the holes
(v)Sand covering
(2)Preventing skidding of vehicles
(i)Impending skidding
(ii)Sideway skidding
(iii)Straight skidding
(3)Reducing reflection cracking
(4)Stripping and ravelling
(5)Waves and corrugations
13-9. Maintenance of cement concrete roads
(1)Maintenance of joints
(2)Mud jacking
(3)Patch repairs
(4)Treatment of cracks
(i)Structural cracks
(ii)Temperature cracks
(5)Loss of texture
13-10. Maintenance of shoulders
(1)Daily maintenance
(2)Periodic maintenance
13-11. Pavement evaluation
(1)Poor riding quality
(3)Structural deterioration
(4)Other surface deterioration
13-12. Strengthening of existing pavements
13-13. Important principles in road improvement
(1)Economy of road improvement
(2)Use of low cost roads
(3)Wear of roads
13-14. Benefits of improved highways

Questions 13


14-1. General
14-2. Highway arboriculture
14-3. Spacing of trees
(1)Distance from edge of road
(2)Location of trees
(3)Planting on both sides
14-4. Types of trees
14-5. Planting operations
(1)Excavation of pits
(2)Preparation of seedlings
(3)Transplanting of seedlings
(4)Protection of young plants
(6)Numbering of trees
14-6. Maintenance of trees
(1)Disposal of dead and fallen trees
(2)Disposal of fruits for fruit-bearing trees
(3)Protection against pests
(4)Pruning and lopping of branches
14-7. Highway lighting
14-8. Design factors of highway lighting
(i)Disability glare or physiological glare
(ii)Discomfort glare or psychological glare
(4)Lateral placement of lighting poles
(i)For roads with raised kerbs (as in urban roads)
(ii)For roads without raised kerb (as in rural roads)
(5)Lighting layouts
(6)Luminaires distribution of light
(7)Mounting height and overhang
(8)Spacing of lighting units
14-9. Benefits of highway lighting
(1)Appreciation by police forces
(2)Increase in business
(4)Recreation centres
(5)Reduction in night-time accident rate
(6)Reduction in serious crimes
14-10. Cost considerations of highway lighting
(1)Design variables
(2)Roadway variables
(3)Miscellaneous variables

Questions 14


15-1. General
15-2. Qualifications of an administrator
15-3. Economics and economy
15-4. Engineering economy
15-5. Principles of economic analysis
(1)Analyse all the alternativesv
(2)Analyse with and without the proposed project
(3)Compare alternatives by their differences
(4)Consider all consequences
(5)Discount all costs and returns to same time period
(6)Disregard past investments
(7)Ignore the method of financing
(8)Use the same analysis period for each alternativev
15-6. Application of economic analysis to highways
(1)Project evaluation
(2)Project formulation
15-7. Methods of economic analysis
(1)Equivalent uniform annual cost method (EUAC)
(2)Present worth of costs method (PWOC)
(3)Equivalent uniform annual net return method (EUANR)
(4)Net present value method (NPV)
(5)Benefit/cost ratio method (B/C)
(6)Rate of return method (ROR)
(7)Cost effectiveness method (CE)
15-7-1. Points to be remembered for economic analysis
15-7-2. Choice of method for economic analysis
(1)Character of the proposed project
(2)Experience of the analyst
(3)Necessity of decision maker
15-8. Highway costs and consequences
15-8-1. Highway costs
15-8-2. Highway consequences
(1)User consequences
(i)Motor vehicle running costs
(ii)Traffic accident costs
(iii)Travel time
(iv)Personal preference items
(2)Non-user consequences
15-9. Highway finance
15-10. Highway administration
15-11. Public private partnership (PPP) models
15-11-1. Classification of PPP models
(1)Supply and management contracts
(2)Turnkey contracts
(3)Lease contracts
(ii)Build-operate-transfer (bot) type contracts
(5)Private ownership model
(i)Build-own-operate (boo) type agreement
(ii)Private finance initiative (PFI)
15-11-2. Types of PPP models
(1)Build and transfer (BT)
(2)Design-build (DB)
(3)Design-construct-manage-finace (DCMF)
(4)Operation and maintenance (O&M)
(7)Build-operate-share-transfer (BOST)
(9)Build-lease-transfer (BLT)
(10)Build-lease-operate-transfer (BLOT)
(11)Build-operate-transfer (BOT)
(12)Build-own-operate (BOO)
-operate-transfer (BOOT)
15-12. Road safety audit (RSA)
(1)Stages to carry out RSA
(2)Points to improve aspect of highway
(3)Advantages of RSA
(4)Aspects of RSA
(i)Institutional frame work
(ii)Parties involved
(iii)Stages and process of audit

Questions 15



16-1. General
16-2. Groups of highway making equipment
16-3. Excavating, earth moving, loading and hauling equipment
16-3-1. Tractors
(1)Wheel mounted tractors
(2)Crawler mounted tractors
16-3-2. Bulldozers
(1)Purposes of bulldozer
(2)Classification of bulldozers
(i)Classification based on the control
(ii)Classification based on mountings
(3)Size and output of bulldozer
(4)Utility of bulldozer
(5)Components of bulldozer
(6)Advantages of wheel mounted bulldozer
(7)Advantages of crawler mounted bulldozer
(8)Attachments of bulldozer
16-3-3. Excavators
(1)Power shovel excavators
(ii)Parts of power shovel
(iii)Operation of power shovel
(iv)Factors affecting output of power shovel
(v)Type and size of power shovel
(vi)Condition for the operation of power shovel
(vii)Uses of power shovel
(2)Dragline excavators
(i)Conditions required to use dragline
(ii)Basic parts of dragline excavator
(iii)Operation of a dragline
(iv)Types of dragline excavators
(v)Output of a dragline
(vi)Factors affecting the output of a dragline excavator
(vii)Advantages of a dragline over a power shovel
(3)Backhoe excavators
(i)Use of backhoe excavators
(ii)Useful in condition of backhoe excavators
(iii)Operation of a backhoe excavator
(iv)Factors affecting output of a backhoe excavator
(v)Advantages of a backhoe excavator
(vi)Disadvantages of a backhoe excavator
(i)Excavating equipment
(iii)Hauling units
(i)Excavation cost
(ii)Hauling cost
(4)Trencher excavators
(i)Ladder type trencher excavators
(ii)Crawler wheel type trencher excavators
(iii)Trapezoidal trencher excavators
(5)Skimmer excavators
(6)Clamshell excavators
(i)Use of clamshell excavator
(ii)Parts and operation of clamshell excavators
(iii)Factors affecting output of a clamshell
16-3-4. Scrapers
(2)Basic parts of scraper
(3)Operation of scrapers
(4)Factors affecting production cycle of scraper
(5)Types of scrapers
(i)Crawler-drawn scraper
(ii)Two axle scraper
(iii)Three axle scraper
(i)Pusher-loaded scrapers
(ii)Self-loading scrapers
(6)Advantages of scrapers
(7)Disadvantages of scrapers
(8)Output of scrapers
(9)Factors affecting output of scraper
16-3-5. Finishing equipment — graders
(1)Types of graders
(i)Towed graders
(ii)Motor graders
(2)Frames of motor graders
(i)Rigid frame
(ii)Articulated frame
(3)Drives of motor graders
(i)Single rear-axle drive
(ii)Tandem rear drive
(4)Operation of motor grader
(iv)Finishing and levelling
(v)Ditch digging
(vii)Bank cutting
(5)Uses of motor graders
(6)Adjustment of grader blade
(i)Blade side shift
(ii)Lifting the blade
(iii)Revolving the turn table
(iv)Blade carrying position
(v)Adjusting blade cutting angle
(7)Factors affecting output of motor graders
(8)Special attachment to the graders
(i)Ripper or scarifier
(ii)Bulldozing blade
(iii)Tyre chains and V plough
16-3-6. Finishing equipment — trimmers
(2)Types of trimmers
(3)Advantages of trimmers
(4)Disadvantages of trimmers
16-4. Hauling equipment: Tipper or dumper trucks
16-5. Dredging equipment
(1)Bucket-ladder dredger (BLD)
(i)Working of bucket-ladder dredger
(ii)Advantages of bucket-ladder dredger
(iii)Disadvantages of bucket-ladder dredger
(2)Grab or clamshell dredger (GD/CD)
(3)Dipper dredger (DD)
(4)Hydraulic dredgers
(i)Advantages of hydraulic dredgers
(ii)Disadvantages of hydraulic dredgers
(iii)Types of hydraulic dredgers
(5)Specialised types of dredgers
16-6. Asphalt-bitumen road making equipment
(1)Bitumen heaters
(2)Bitumen mixers
(i)Adequate supply of materials
(ii)Arrangements for transport
(iii)Covering of dumpers
(iv)Pavers and rollers
(3)Bitumen mixer truck
16-7. Concrete road making equipment
(1)Batching plant
(2)Concrete mixer
(3)Vibrating screed
(4)Internal vibrator
(6)Straight edge
(8)Fibre brush
16-8. Concrete transit mixer truck — travelling plant
16-9. Slipform concrete paver
16-10. Earth compacting equipment
(1)Road rollers
(i)Rubber-tyred or pneumatic rollers
(ii)Sheep’s foot rollers
(iii)Smooth wheeled rollers
(2)Vibratory compactors
(3)Earth rammers
(4)Jetting and pounding
16-11. Pavement milling or cold planing or asphalt milling
16-12. Crusher
(1)Jaw crusher
(2)Cone crusher
(3)Gyratory crusher
(4)Hammer mill/crusher
(5)Double roll crusher

Questions 16



17-1. General
17-2. Objects of traffic engineering
17-3. Road user characteristics
(1)Physical characteristics
(2)Mental characteristics
(3)Psychological characteristics
(4)Environmental characteristics
(i)Traffic stream characteristics
(ii)Traffic facilities
(iii)Atmospheric condition
17-4. Vehicular characteristics
(1)Static characteristics of a vehicle
(i)Dimensions of a vehicle
(ii)Weight of a vehicle
(2)Dynamic characteristics of a vehicle
17-5. Traffic surveys
17-5-1. Accident survey
17-5-2. Origin and destination (o&d) survey
(1)House interview method
(2)License plate method
(3)Postal questionnaire method
(4)Route interview method
(5)Tag-on-car method
17-5-3. Parking survey
(1)Parking accumulation
(2)Parking duration
(3)Parking load
(4)Parking turnover
(5)Parking volume
(i)Cordon counts
(ii)Parking interviews
(iii)Preparation of inventory
17-5-4. Spot speed survey
17-5-5. Speed and delay survey
17-5-6. Traffic volume survey
(1)Objects of traffic volume survey
(2)Methods of traffic volume survey
(i)Automatic recorders
(ii)Manual counting method
(3)Information collected in traffic volume survey
(4)Uses of traffic volume survey
17-6. Road accidents
17-6-1. Causes of road accidents
(1)Defective vehicles
(3)Moving of animals
(6)Road design
(7)Traffic volume
17-6-2. Collection of accident data
(1)Engineering uses
(2)Enforcement uses
(3)Administrative and policy issues
(4)Educational uses
(5)Uses for motor vehicle administrator
17-6-3. Requirements of accident records
17-6-4. Collision diagrams
17-6-5. Condition diagram
17-6-6. Measures to prevent road accidents
(1)Educational methods
(2)Enforcement methods
(3)Engineering methods
17-7. Parking
(1)Kerb or on-street parking
(2)Off-street parking
17-8. Methods of parking
17-9. Traffic congestion
(1)General public
(2)Road users
(3)Transport personnel
17-10. Traffic control
17-11. One-way streets
17-11-1. Advantages of one-way streets
(1)Improvement in pedestrian movements
(2)Improving safety
(3)Increasing average speed
(4)Increasing capacity
(5)Night traffic
(6)Reduction in accidents
(7)Traffic control
17-11-2. Disadvantages of one-way streets
(1)Effect on certain types of trade
(2)Operational difficulties
(3)Safety problems
17-12. Road junctions or intersections
(2)Factors in design and operation
(i)Angle of crossing
(iv)Entry speeds
(vi)Importance of roads
(viii)Pedestrian traffic
17-13. Types of intersections
17-13-1. At-grade intersections
(1)All-paved or unchannelized intersections
(2)Channelized intersections
(3)Roundabouts or rotaries
17-13-2. Conflicts at an intersection
17-13-3. Grade separations or interchange
(1)Direct ramp
(2)Semi-direct ramp
(3)Indirect ramp
(i)Clover-leaf interchange
(ii)Diamond interchange
(iii)Rotary interchange
(iv)Three-way interchange
17-14. Traffic control devices
17-14-1. Road markings
(1)Longitudinal markings
(i)Centre line markings
(ii)Traffic lane markings
(iii)No passing zones
(iv)Warning lines
(v)Edge lines
(2)Intersectional or transverse markings
(i)Pedestrian crossings
(ii)Direction arrows
(iii)Stop line markings
(iv)Single stop line
(3)Hazardous location markings
(4)Parking markings
(5)Word messages
(6)Object markings
17-14-2. Road signs
(1)Purposes of road signs
(2)Limitations of road signs
(3)Design and location of road signs
(4)Types of road signs
(i)Mandatory or regulatory signs
(ii)Cautionary or warning signs
(iii)Informatory or guide signs
Route marker signs
(i)The state highway route marker sign
(ii)The national highway route marker signs
(iii)The asian highway route marker signs
(iv)The national expressway route marker signs
17-14-3. Traffic signals
(1)Advantages of traffic signals
(2)Limitations of traffic signals
(3)Modern development
17-14-4. Speed breakers
17-15. Peculiarities of traffic

Questions 17



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