# Reinforced Concrete Vol. I – Part I By Dr. H. J. Shah

~~₹700.00~~ ₹630.00

By **Dr. H. J. Shah**

12^{th} Edition 2021

ISBN : 9789385039478

Binding : Paperback

Pages : 800 + 24 = 824

Size (mm) : 235 × 37 × 170

Weight : 1050 g

## Additional information

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Old ISBN | 8185594546, 9788185594743, 9788192869247, 9789380358000, 9789380358475, 9789385039188, 9789385039485 |

## Description

This book presents the basic principles involved in Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. This **12th edition** of **Vol. I** has been thoroughly revised and extensively enlarged in two parts. Almost all chapters are revised with adding a plenty of new matter, examples and figures. Mix design as per latest **IS:10262** with excel programs is added. A number of excel programs have been added to clarify the subject matter and design the elements of structure. As per prevailing market conditions the default combination of materials is revised to M20 grade concrete and Fe 500 grade steel, however, the other combinations of materials have not been completely ignored.

*The outline of the book* *“Reinforced Concrete Vol. I – Part I”**is as mentioned below:*

**Chapter 1** to **3** discuss mainly Concrete Technology. Chapter 1 introduces the subject, while

**Chapter 2** deals with properties of ingredients of concrete.

**Chapter 3** deals with properties of wet and set concrete. It explains design mix concrete and presents excel programs to design a concrete mix for standard concretes based on **IS:10262-2019.**

**Chapter 4** to **6** discuss fundamentals of flexure design, also discuss working stress method as well as limit state method for flexure design. It designs singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and flanged beams for flexure.

**Chapter 7** and **8** presents design for Shear and checking for Development Length, Deflection and Cracking.

**Chapter 9** and **10** deal with the design of Simply Supported and Cantilever Beams and Slabs.

**Chapter 11** Continuous beams and slabs capable of free rotation at supports are discussed, including redistribution of moments.

**Chapter 12** and **13** Simple cases of torsion and stairs are discussed.

**Chapter 14** and **15** Introduce the Load Calculations and Simple designs. Considering the fundamentals developed in earlier chapters, the load calculations on simple structures like

Slabs and Beams, capable of free rotation at supports are considered. A few cases are designed in chapter 15.

**Chapter 16** Designs of Framed Beams are introduced with examples considering it appropriate to discuss with the elements that are not free to rotate at their supports.

*Now this book* *“Reinforced Concrete Vol. I – Part I”**, in its 16 Chapters and Appendix contains:*

*** 350 Neatly drawn sketches**

*** 063 Useful tables**

*** 167 Design problems**

*** 243 Questions at the end of the chapters**

*** 019 Excel programs**

*** 316 Short questions with answers.**

The book in the present form will prove to be extremely useful to the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering and Architecture of all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S., and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also be an immense use to practicing Civil Engineers.

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## Content

1 : INTRODUCTION

2 : PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE

3 : STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

4 : DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: FUNDAMENTALS

5 : DESIGN FOR FLEXURE

6 : LIMIT STATE METHOD

7 : SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

8 : DEFLECTION AND CRACKING

9 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND

10 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND

11 : CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS

12 : TORSION

13 : STAIRS

14 : LOAD CALCULATIONS FOR

15 : SIMPLE DESIGNS

16 : FRAMED BEAMS

APPENDIX A : SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

APPENDIX B : USEFUL TABLE

INDEX

## Details Content

**Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION**

1-1. Structural design—Role of a structural engineer

1-2. Concrete and reinforced concrete

1-3. Mechanics of reinforce concrete

1-4. Advantages and limitations of using concrete

1-5. Structural elements

(1) Slabs

(2) Beams

(3) Columns

(4) Walls

(5) Foundations

1-6. Loads on structure

(1) Dead loads

(2) Live loads

(3) Impact loads

(4) Wind loads

(5) Earthquake loads

(6) Longitudinal loads

1-7. Load combinations

1-8. Ductility versus brittleness

1-9. Strength and serviceability

1-10. Response of a structure to wind and earthquake loads

1-11. Ordinary and ductile structures

1-12. Methods of design

(1) Working stress method

(2) Limit state method

1-13. Codes of practice

1-14. Adaptation of SI units

1-15. Presentation of design calculation of a project

QUESTIONS I

**Chapter 2 PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE**

2-1. Introductory

Cement

2-2. General

2-3. Manufacture of Portland cement

2-4. Basic chemistry of cement

(1) Lime

(2) Silica

(3) Alumina

(4) Iron oxide

(5) Magnesia

(6) Calcium sulphate

(7) Alkalis

(8) Sulphur trioxide

Properties of chemical compounds

2-5. Chemical properties of cement

(1) Lime saturation factor

(2) Ratio of alumina to iron oxide

(3) Insoluble residue

(4) Magnesia

(5) Total sulphate content as sulphuric anhydride

(6) Total loss in ignition

2-6. Hydration of cement

(1) General

(2) Chemistry of hydration

(3) Heat of hydration and strength

(4) Rate of hydration

2-7. Types of cement

(1) Ordinary portland cement

(2) Rapid hardening cement

(3) Blast furnace slag portland cement

(4) Portland pozzolana cement

(5) Hydrophobic cement

(6) Low heat portland cement

(7) Sulphate resisting cement

(8) High alumina cement

(9) Super-sulphated cement

(10) Oil-well cement

(11) Ultra-rapid hardening portland cement

(12) White cement

(13) Coloured cement

(14) Water-proof portland cement

(15) Masonry cement

(16) Expanding cement

(17) Quick setting cement

(18) Air-entraining cement

2-8. Selection of cement for production of concrete

2-9. Tests for cement

2-10. Fineness test

(1) By dry sieving

(2) Blain air permeability method

2-11. Consistency of standard

Cement paste

Procedure

2-12. Test for setting times

Procedure

False set

2-13. Soundness test

Procedure

2-14. Autoclave expansion

Procedure

2-15. Density test

Apparatus

Materials

Procedure

Calculation

Specific gravity of cement

2-16. Test for compressive strength

2-17. Heat of hydration test

2-18. Storing of cement

Mineral admixtures

2-19. Mineral admixtures

(1) Pozzolana

(2) Ground granulated blast furnace slag

AGGREGATES

2-20. Introductory

2-21. Aggregate size

(1) Single size aggregate

(2) Graded aggregates

2-22. Fine and coarse aggregate

2-23. Properties of aggregate

2-23-1. Particle shape

2-23-2. Surface texture

2-23-3. Strength of aggregate

(1) Compressive strength of prepared samples of parent rocks

(2) Aggregate crushing value

(3) Ten percent fines value

(4) Aggregate impact value

2-23-4. Specific gravity

(1) Apparent specific gravity

(2) Specific gravity based on saturated surface dry basis

2-23-5. Bulk density

2-23-6. Water absorption and surface moisture

(1) Water absorption

(2) Surface moisture

2-23-7. Bulking of sand

2-23-8. Deleterious substances in aggregates

(1) Organic impurities

(2) Surface coatings

(3) Salt contamination

(4) Weak or unsound particles

2-23-9. Soundness of aggregate

2-23-10. Alkali-aggregate reaction

2-24. Sieve analysis

Fineness modulus

2-25. Standard grading

(1) Coarse aggregate

(2) Fine aggregate

(3) All-in-aggregate

2-26. Use of grading curves

(1) Coarse aggregates

(2) Fine aggregates

WATER

2-37. Water for mixing concrete

2-28. Water-cement ratio and water-cementitious materials ratio

CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES

2-29. Admixtures

(1) Accelerators

(2) Retarders

(3) Water reducing admixtures

(4) Air-entraining agents

REINFORCEMENT

2-30. Steel as reinforcement

2-31. Types of reinforcement

(1) Plain bars

(2) High strength deformed (hsd) bars

2-31-1. Plain bars

(1) Mild steel bars

(2) Medium tensile steel bars

(3) Hard drawn wire or welded wire fabric

2-31-2. High strength deformed (hsd) bars

(1) Cold twisted deformed (ctd) bars

(2) Thermo-mechanically treated (tmt) bars

2-32. Corrosion–resistant steel

2-33. Grades of normal and enhanced quality

Hsd rebars for reinforced concrete

2-34. Bending and fixing of bars

2-35. Welding of reinforcement

2-36. General notes for site engineers

QUESTIONS II

EXAMPLES II

**Chapter 3 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE**

3-1. Proportioning of ingredients

(1) Design mix concrete

(2) Nominal mix concrete

Dosage of admixtures

3-2. Estimation of materials for nominal mix

3-3. Measurement of materials

(1) Mass-batching

(2) Volume-batching

3-4. Mixing and placing of concrete

(1) Batch mixers

(2) Ready mix concrete (rmc)

(3) Continuous mixers

3-5. Compaction

3-6. Curing

(1) Moist curing

(2) Membrane curing

(3) Steam curing

3-7. Formwork for R.C.C. members

3-8. Workability

(1) Slump test

(2) Compacting factor test

(3) Vee-bee test

3-9. Factors influencing workability

3-10. Strength of concrete and water-cement ratio

(1) Compaction

(2) Curing

(3) Fineness of aggregate

(4) Fatigue and impact

(5) Age

(6) Compressive strength of cement and concrete

3-11. Compressive strength of concrete

(1) Object

(2) Equipments

(3) Preparation

(4) Capping

(5) Testing

(6) Results

3-12. Tensile strength of concrete

(1) Split cylinder test

(2) Standard beam test — modulus of rupture test

3-13. Non-destructive tests

(1) Rebound hardness test

(2) Ultrasonic pulse velocity test

3-14. Stress-strain behaviour of concrete under short term loads

(1) Compressive loads

(2) Tensile loads

3-15. Short term static modulus of elasticity

Poisson’s ratio

3-16. Shrinkage

(1) Plastic shrinkage

(2) Drying shrinkage

(3) Carbonation shrinkage

(4) Autogenous shrinkage

3-17. Creep

3-18. Durability of concrete

(1) Use of inferior quality materials

(2) Improper compaction and curing

(3) Limits on cement content

(4) Requirements of concrete cover to steel reinforcement

(5) Improper design and detailing

3-19. Temperature change

3-20. Concrete quality control

3-21. Sampling and strength tests of concrete

(1) Sampling and frequency of sampling

(2) Strength tests

(3) Preparing sampling and testing records

(4) Checking the record

(5) Analyse the results

3-22. Statistical analysis of test results

(1) Density function

(2) Normal distribution

(3) Mean

(4) Standard deviation

3-23. Standard deviation

(1) Standard deviation based on test strength of sample

(2) Assumed standard deviation

3-24. Acceptance criteria

Design mix concrete

3-25. Introductory

3-26. Use of plasticizers and super-plasticizers

Efficiency of super plasticizer

Mix design for ordinary and

Standard grades of concrete

3-27. Basic assumptions

3-28. Data for mix design

3-29. Target strength for mix design

3-30. Assumed standard deviation

3-31. Selection of water-cement/

Water-cementitious materials ratio

Portland pozzolana cement

3-32. Estimation of air content

3-33. Selection of water content and admixture content

Note for site work

Type of aggregates

Workability required

Use of chemical admixtures

3-34. Calculation of cement/cementitious materials content

3-35. Estimation of coarse and fine aggregate

Proportion in all–in aggregates

Correction for w/c ratio

Correction for concrete of increased workability

3-36. Estimation of masses of various ingredients

3-37. Trial mixes

QUESTIONS 3

EXAMPLES 3

**Chapter 4 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: FUNDAMENTALS**

4-1. Introductory

4-2. Review of theory of simple bending

4-3. Practical requirements of an r.C.C. Beam

4-4. Size of the beam

4-5. Cover to the reinforcement

4-6. Spacing of bars

4-7. Design requirements of a beam

4-8. Classification of beams

(1) Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced beams

(2) Rectangular and flanged beams

4-9. Effective width of a flanged beam

4-10. Cracking moment

4-11. Balanced, under-reinforced and over-reinforced design

(1) Balanced design

(2) Under-reinforced design

(3) Over-reinforced design

4-12. Bending of an r.C.C. Beam

(1) Uncracked concrete stage

(2) Concrete cracked-elastic stresses stage

(3) Ultimate strength stage

4-13. Design methods

**Chapter 5 DESIGN FOR FLEXURE: WORKING STRESS
METHOD**

5-1. Permissible stresses

Increase in permissible stresses

5-2. Modular ratio

5-3. Design for flexure–assumptions

Singly reinforced beams

5-4. Derivation of formulae for balanced design

5-5. Transformed area method

(1) To decide the type of the beam

(2) Balanced design

(3) Over-reinforced design

5-6. Types of problems in singly reinforced concrete

5-7. Analysis of the section

5-8. Design of the section

(1) Dimensions not given

(2) Dimensions are given

5-9. Use of design aids

Doubly reinforced beams

5-10. Introductory

5-11. Derivation of formulae for balanced design

5-12. Transformed area method

5-13. Types of problems for doubly reinforced concrete

5-14. Use of design aids

Flanged beams

5-15. Moment of resistance of a singly reinforced flanged beam

(1) Neutral axis lies in flange

(2) Neutral axis lies in web

5-16. Types of problems for flanged beams

5-17. Doubly reinforced flanged beams

5-18. Slabs

EXAMPLES 5

**Chapter 6 LIMIT STATE METHOD**

6-1. Inelastic behaviour of materials

6-2. Ultimate load theory

6-3. Limit state method

6-4. Limit state of collapse

6-5. Limit state of serviceability

Deflection

Cracking

6-6. Characteristic and design values and partial safety factors

(1) Characteristic strength of materials

(2) Characteristic loads

(3) Partial safety factors

(4) Design values

6-7. Limit state of collapse: flexure

Assumptions

Strain compatibility

Singly reinforced rectangular beams

6-8. Derivation of formulae

(1) With respect to compression

(2) With respect to tension

6-9. General values

(1) Limiting moment of resistance index

(2) Limiting reinforcement index

6-10. Types of problems

6-11. Failure of r.C.C. Beam in flexure

6-12. Code provisions to prevent the brittle failure

6-13. Computer programmes

Doubly reinforced beams

6-14. Derivation of formulae

6-15. Types of problems

6-16. Use of design aids

6-17. Computer programmes for doubly

Reinforced rectangular sections

Flanged beams

6-18. Introductory

6-19. Position of neutral axis

6-20. Derivation of formulae

6-21. Use of design aids

6-22. Doubly reinforced flanged beams

6-23. Sections subjected to reversal of moments

(1) Hogging moment

(2) Sagging moment

6-24. Computer programmes for flanged sections

Examples 6

**Chapter 7 SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH**

7-1. Shear in structural members

(1) Flexural shear

(2) Punching shear

(3) Torsion shear

7-2. Flexure and shear in homogeneous beam

7-3. Shear in reinforced concrete beams – elastic theory

7-4. Diagonal tension and diagonal compression

7-5. Limit state theory

7-6. Design shear strength of concrete for various member

Without shear reinforcement

(1) Beams

(2) Solid slabs

(3) Members under axial compression

7-7. Design for shear

7-8. Shear reinforcement in beams

(1) Vertical stirrups

(2) Inclined stirrups

(3) Bent bars

(4) Shear resistance capacity of a section

7-9. Practical considerations

(1) Distance of first bent bar from support

(2) Maximum spacing

(3) Minimum shear reinforcement

(4) Maximum shear stress

7-10. Critical sections for shear

(1) Tension in end region of a member

(2) Compression in end region of a member

7-11. Design of a complete beam for shear

Simplified approach

Using enhanced shear strength

Supplementary notes

7-12. Use of design aids

(1) Minimum shear reinforcement

(2) Vertical stirrups

(3) Bent bars

7-13. Shear design of beams with variable depth

Development length

7-14. Bond and bond stress

(1) Features of reinforced concrete attributed to bond

(2) Grip or bond attributed to various mechanisms

7-15. Flexural (local) bond and development (anchorage) bond

(1) Flexural or local bond

(2) Secondary effects

(3) Development or anchorage bond

7-16. Anchorage length and development length

(1) Anchorage length

(2) Development length

7-17. Development length: pull out test

Mechanism of bond failure

(1) Pull out failure

(2) Splitting failure

7-18. Code provision

7-19. Use of bundled bars

7-20. Anchoring reinforcements

(1) Anchoring bars in tension

(2) Anchoring bars in compression

(3) Anchoring bars in shear

7-21. Bearing stresses at bends

7-22. Reinforcement splicing

(1) Lap splices

(2) End bearing splices

(3) Welded splices

(4) Mechanical splices

7-23. Ensuring ductile failure

EXAMPLES 7

Long questions of chapter 7

**Chapter 8 DEFLECTION AND CRACKING DEFLECTION**

8-1. Limit state of serviceability

8-2. Deflections in a structure or structural members

(1) Structural damage

(2) Non-structural damage

(3) Discomfort to the occupants

8-3. Span/effective depth ratio

8-4. Control of deflection on site

(1) Cambering

(2) Controlling concrete work

(3) Removal of forms

(4) Controlling temporary loads

8-5. Deflection calculations

8-6. Short term deflections

(1) Modulus of elasticity of concrete

(2) Moment of inertia of the section

8-7. Long term deflections

(1) Deflection due to shrinkage

(2) Deflection due of creep

Cracking

8-8. Introductory

(1) Bar spacing controls

(2) Crack width calculations

8-9. Bar spacing controls

(1) Beams

(2) Slabs

8-10. Calculation of crack width

(1) Assumptions

(2) Approximate method

8-11. Computer programs

EXAMPLES 8

**Chapter 9 SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER BEAMS**

9-1. Design procedure

(1) Estimation of loads

(2) Analysis

(3) Design

9-2. Anchorage of bars check for development length

9-3. Reinforcement requirements

(1) Tension reinforcement

(2) Compression reinforcement

(3) Cover to the reinforcement

9-4. Slenderness limits for beams to ensure lateral stability

Simply supported beams

9-5. Introductory

9-6. Design s.F. Diagram

9-7. Curtailment of bars

9-8. Design of a template

9-9. Design of a lintel

(1) Loads

(2) Size

(3) Cover

Cantilever beams

9-10. Design considerations

9-11. Computer programs

EXAMPLES 9

**Chapter 10 SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER SLABS**

10-1. Introductory

(1) One-way spanning slabs

(2) Two-way spanning slabs

(3) Flat slabs

(4) Grid slabs

(5) Circular slabs

(6) Ribbed and waffle slabs

10-2. Analysis

(1) Elastic analysis

(2) Using coefficients

(3) Yield line method

10-3. One-way spanning slabs

(1) Effective span

(2) General

(3) Reinforcement requirements

(4) Shear stress

(5) Deflection

(6) Cracking

(7) Cover

(8) Development length

10-4. Simply supported one-way slab

10-5. Detailing of slabs

10-6. Inclined slabs

(1) Slabs spanning perpendicular to the slope

(2) Slabs spanning parallel to the slope

10-7. Straight slabs having a small length inclined along the span

10-8. Cantilever slab

10-9. Concentrated load on slabs

10-10. Two-way slabs

10-11. Simply supported two-way slabs

10-12. Computer program

EXAMPLES 10

**Chapter 11 CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS**

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

11-1. Introductory

11-2. Analysis parameters

(1) Effective span

(2) Stiffness

11-3. Live load arrangements

Arrangement of live load

11-4. Redistribution of moment

(1) Plastic hinge

(2) Fixed beam

(3) Code requirements

11-5. Reinforcement requirements

11-6. Flexure design considerations

11-7. Simplified analysis for uniform loads

11-8. Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beams

11-9. Typical continuous beam details

Continuous slabs

11-10. Continuous one-way slab

11-11. Restrained two-way slabs

11-12. Two-way slabs subjected to large shear force

11-13. Computer program

EXAMPLES 11

QUESTIONS 11

**Chapter 12 TORSION**

12-1. General

(1) Equilibrium torsion

(2) Compatibility torsion

12-2. Effect of torsion: provision of reinforcement

12-3. Code provisions

(1) General

(2) Design rules

12-4. General cases of torsion

(1) Cantilever slab inducing torsion in supporting beam

(2) Cantilever beam inducing torsion in supporting beam

(3) Beams curved in plan

12-5. Beams curved in plan

12-6. Circular beam

(1) Support moments mo

(2) Shear, moment and torsion at p

12-7. Circular arc fixed at ends

12-8. Design of beams curved in plan

EXAMPLES 12

QUESTIONS 12

**Chapter 13 STAIRS**

13-1. Stair slabs

13-2. Classification of stairs

(1) Straight stair

(2) Dog-legged stair

(3) Open well stair

13-3. Design requirements for stair

(1) Live loads on stair

(2) Effective span of stair

(3) Distribution of loading on stairs

(4) Depth of section

13-4. Reducing the span

13-5. Tread-riser staircase

13-6. Closure

EXAMPLES 13

**Chapter 14 LOAD CALCULATIONS – 1**

Slabs and beams

14-1. Introductory

14-2. Loads on slabs

(1) Self weight of the slab

(2) Floor finish

(3) Live loads

(4) Any other loads

14-3. Loading on beams from one-way slabs

14-4. Wall loads and self weight of beams

14-5. Loading on beams from two-way slabs

14-6. Unit loads

EXAMPLES 14

**Chapter 15 SIMPLE DESIGNS**

15-1. Introductory

15-2. Design s.F. Diagram

15-3. Loads from two-way slabs

EXAMPLES 15

**Chapter 16 FRAMED BEAMS**,

16-1. Structural joints

16-2. Fixed, cantilever and framed beams

(1) Fixed beams

(2) Cantilever beam

(3) Framed beams

16-3. Analysis and design of the framed beams

16-4. Single span portal frame

16-5. Substitute frame

Moment of inertia of framed beams and columns

EXAMPLES 16

**Appendix A SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS
Appendix B USEFUL TABLES
Moment and shear coefficients
Index**

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