SURVEYING AND LEVELLING

300.00

By RANGWALA

7th Edition 2014 (Paperback)
ISBN : 9789380358949
440+ 16 = 456 Pages
Size : 17 cm × 24 cm × 2.1 cm
Weight : 0.800 kg

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Description

This text-book provides an up-to-date knowledge of the basic principles of Surveying and
Levelling. The subject matter is canvassed along with theory, variety of examples, various types
of survey techniques; survey instruments used in the field; measurement of distances, both
vertical and horizontal; the direction of lines or angles between the lines, where as various
levelling instruments, principles, techniques, methods applied in levelling are given in this
text book. The subject matter is expressed in a simple language and practical manner. The
treatment is clear, methodical as well as interesting and easy to follow.
The entire subject matter is systematically arranged in the chapters like: Introduction, Scales,
Linear Measurements of Distances , Chain Surveying and Ranging, Cross Staff Chain Surveying
and Instruments, Compass Survey, Levelling, Contouring, Plane Table Survey, Computation
of Areas, Computation of Volumes, Minor Instruments, Theodolite, Permanent Adjustments
of Levels, Tacheometric Surveying, Circular Curves, Transition Curves, Vertical Curves, Field
Astronomy, Theory of Errors, Setting Out Works, Hydrographic Surveying, Photographic
Surveying, Modern Techniques of Surveying.
Appendix I contains Question Bank and Solved Problems. Total 215 theory as well as numerical
questions mostly asked in viva and written examination of G.T.U. and other universities are
included. Appendix II contains 181 Multiple Choice Questions and Appendix II showing
Abbreviated Terms used in this book are added at the end of the book.
The book now contains:
* 404 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches
* 218 Solved problems
* 215 Theory as well as numerical questions
* 66 Useful tables
* 480 Questions at the ends of chapters.
The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Engineering students preparing for the
Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by
various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C.,
G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also
prove of interest to the practising professionals.

Additional information

Weight 0.8 kg
Dimensions 17 × 2.1 × 24 cm
Author Name

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Content

1 : INTRODUCTION
2 : SCALES
3 : LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES
4 : CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING
5 : CROSS STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND
INSTRUMENTS
6 : COMPASS SURVEY
7 : LEVELLING
8 : CONTOURING
9 : PLANE TABLE SURVEY
10 : COMPUTATION OF AREAS
11 : COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES
12 : MINOR INSTRUMENTS
13 : THEODOLITE
14 : PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS
15 : TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING
16 : CIRCULAR CURVES
17 : TRANSITION CURVES
18 : VERTICAL CURVES
19 : FIELD ASTRONOMY
20 : THEORY OF ERRORS
21 : SETTING OUT WORKS
22 : HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
23 : PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING
24 : MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING
APPENDIX I : QUESTION BANK AND SOLVED
PROBLEMS
APPENDIX II : MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
APPENDIX III : ABBREVIATED TERMS
INDEX

Details Content


Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1. General
1-2. Object of survey
1-3. Purposes of survey
1-4. Classification of surveys
1-4-1. Engineering surveys
1-4-2. Geodetic surveys
1-4-3. Plane surveys
1-4-4. Miscellaneous surveys
1-5. Principles of surveying
1-6. Uses of survey
1-7. Measurements and their units
1-8. Roll of Surveyor
1-9. Precision and accuracy in surveying
QUESTIONS 1

Chapter 2 SCALES

2-1. General
2-2. Requirements of a scale
2-3. Classification of scales
2-3-1. Plain scale
2-3-2. Diagonal scale
2-3-3. Vernier scale
2-3-4. Miscellaneous scales
2-4. Plans and maps
2-5. Scale for survey maps and plans
2-6. Correction due to use of wrong scale
QUESTIONS 2

Chapter 3 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES

3-1. General
3-2. Direct methods of linear measurements
3-2-1. Direct methods without instruments
3-2-2. Direct methods with instruments
3-3. Types of chains
3-4. Testing and adjusting of chain
3-5. Instruments for marking stations
3-6. Types of tapes
3-7. Tape corrections
QUESTIONS

Chapter 4 CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING

4-1. General
4-2. Principle of chain survey
4-3. Survey stations
4-4. Survey lines
4-5. Offsets
4-6. Ranging
4-7. Types of ranging
4-7-1. Direct ranging
4-7-2. Indirect ranging
4-8. Chaining on plain ground
4-9. Points to be observed during chaining
4-10. Chaining on sloping ground
4-10-1.Direct method of chaining
4-10-2.Indirect method of chaining
4-11. Errors in ordinary chaining
4-11-1.Compensating errors
4-11-2.Cumulative errors
4-12. Degree of accuracy in chaining work
4-13. Field book
4-14. Instruments required in chain survey
4-15. Procedure for carrying out chain survey
4-16. Plotting work with conventional signs
QUESTIONS 4


Chapter 5 CROSS STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND
INSTRUMENTS

5-1. General
5-2. Purpose
5-3. Basic principle
5-4. Instruments for setting out perpendiculars
5-4-1. Chain or tape
5-4-2. Cross-staff
5-4-3. Optical square
5-5. Cross-staff survey
5-6. Obstacles in chaining
5-6-1. Chaining free but vision obstructed
5-6-2. Chaining obstructed but vision free
5-6-3. Chaining and vision both obstructed
QUESTIONS 5

Chapter 6 COMPASS SURVEY

6-1. General
6-2. Traversing and triangulation
6-3. Methods of measuring direction
6-4. Magnetic needle
6-5. Pivot
6-6. Compass
6-7. Tripods
6-8. Bearings
6-9. Magnetic declination
6-10. Classification of declination
6-11. Methods of designation
6-12. Fore bearing and back bearing
6-13. Included angles from bearings
6-14. Local attraction
6-15. Chain and compass survey
6-16. Plotting of compass survey
6-17. Closing error
6-18. Errors in compass survey
6-19. Precautions in using the compass
6-20. Accuracy and precision
6-21. Limits of precision
QUESTIONS 6

Chapter 7 LEVELLING

7-1. General
7-2. Definitions of some common terms in levelling
7-3. Methods of levelling
7-3-1. Direct levelling
7-3-2. Indirect levelling
7-4. Principles of levelling
7-5. Instruments for levelling
7-6. Types of levels
7-7. Levelling staff
7-8. Essential parts of a level
7-9. Parallax and focussing
7-10. Defects of a single lens
7-11. Parts of a telescope
7-12. Optical characteristics of telescope
7-13. Accessories to a level
7-14. Bench marks
7-15. Temporary adjustments of levels
7-16. Entering the staff readings
7-17. Reduction of levels
7-18. Difficulties in levelling
7-19. Curvature and refraction
7-20. Errors in levelling
7-21. Precision of levelling
QUESTIONS 7


Chapter 8 CONTOURING

8-1. General
8-2. Contour lines
8-3. Contour interval
8-4. Horizontal equivalent
8-5. Characteristics of contours
8-6. Location of contours
8-7. Interpolation of contours
8-8. Contour drawing
8-9. Contour gradient
8-10. Uses of contours
QUESTIONS 8

Chapter 9 PLANE TABLE SURVEY

9-1. General
9-2. Instruments required for plane table survey
9-3. Accessories required for plane table survey
9-4. Temporary adjustments of plane table
9-5. Methods of plane table survey
9-6. Two-point and three-point problems
9-6-1. Two-point problem
9-6-2. Three-point problem
9-7. Errors in plane table survey
9-8. Advantages of plane table survey
9-9. Disadvantages of plane table survey
QUESTIONS 9

Chapter 10 COMPUTATION OF AREAS

10-1. General
10-2. Methods for the computation of areas
10-3. Geometrical figures
10-4. Measuring grids
10-5. Ordinates
10-6. Co-ordinates
10-7. Planimeter
10-8. Method of using a planimeter
10-9. Zero circle
QUESTIONS 10

Chapter 11 COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES

11-1. General
11-2. Methods for computation of volumes
11-2-1.Cross-sections
11-2-2.Spot levels
11-2-3.Study of contour plan
11-3. Prismoidal correction
11-4. Curvature correction for volumes
QUESTIONS 11

Chapter 12 MINOR INSTRUMENTS

12-2. Abney level
12-2-1.Essential parts of abney level
12-2-2.Working of abney level
12-2-3.Testing of abney level
12-3. Box sextant
12-3-1.Essential parts of box sextant
12-3-2.Principle of box sextant
12-3-3.Working of box sextant
12-3-4.Optical requirements and adjustments of box sextant
12-4. Ceylon ghat tracer
12-4-1.Essential parts of ghat tracer
12-4-2.Working of ghat tracer
12-5. De Lisle’s clinometer
12-5-1.Essential parts of De Lisle’s clinometer

12-5-2.Working of De Lisle’s clinometer
12-6. Eidograph
12-7. Foot-rule clinometer
12-7-1.Working of foot-rule clinometer
12-8. Hand level
12-8-1.Working of hand level
12-8-2.Adjustment of the hand level
12-9. Indian pattern clinometer
12-9-1.Essential parts of Indian pattern clinometer:
12-9-2.Working of Indian pattern clinometer
12-9-3.Adjustment of Indian pattern clinometer
12-10. Pantagraph
12-11. Proportional compass
12-12. Watkin’s mirror clinometer
QUESTIONS 12

Chapter 13 THEODOLITE

13-1 General
13-2 Essential parts of a transit theodolite
13-3 Definitions and terms used for theodolite work
13-4. Micrometer theodolites
13-5. Temporary adjustments of theodolite
13-6. Measurement of horizontal angles
13-7. Measurement of vertical angles
13-8. Miscellaneous operations with theodolite
13-9. Theodolite traverse
13-10. Locating details in theodolite traverse
13-11. Degree of accuracy in theodolite traversing
13-12. Plotting of theodolite traverse
13-13. Closing error
13-14. Angular error
13-15. Adjustment of bearings
13-16. Balancing the traverse
13-17. Traverse table
13-18. Errors in theodolite work
13-19. Fundamental lines and desired relations
13-20. Permanent adjustments of theodolite
13-21. Uses of theodolite
13-22. Typical problems on theodolite
13-23. Modern theodolites
QUESTIONS 13

Chapter 14 PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS

14-1. General
14-2. Fundamental axes of the levelling instruments
14-3. Principle of reversibility
14-4. Precautions to be taken during the permanent adjustments
14-5. Adjustments of dumpy level
14-6. Adjustments of Y-level
14-7. Adjustments of Cooke’s reversible level
14-8. Adjustments of Cushing’s level
14-9. Adjustments of tilting level
QUESTIONS 14
Chapter 15 TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING
15-1. General
15-2. Instruments
15-3. Uses of tacheometry
15-4. Systems of tacheometric measurements
15-5. Stadia method
15-6. Subtense method
15-7. Tangential method
QUESTIONS 15


Chapter 16 CIRCULAR CURVES

16-1. General
16-2. Classification of circular curves
16-3. Simple curves
16-4. Elements of simple curve
16-5. Location of tangents
16-6. Location of tangent points
16-7. Peg Interval
16-8. Normal chords and sub-chords
16-9. Setting out simple curves
16-9-1.Linear methods
16-9-2.Angular methods
16-10. Special problems in simple curves
16-11. Compound curves
16-12. Setting out compound curves
16-13. Reverse or serpentine curves
QUESTIONS 16

Chapter 17 TRANSITION CURVES

17-1. General
17-2. Requirements of transition curve
17-3. Composite curve
17-4. Super-elevation
17-5. Centrifugal ratio
17-6. Length of transition curve
17-7. Ideal transition curve
17-8. Cartesian co-ordinates of the points
17-9. Calculation of deflection angles
17-10. Modifications of ideal transition curve
17-11. Characteristics of a transition curve
17-12. Lemniscate transition curve
17-13. Comparison of transition curves
QUESTIONS 17

Chapter 18 VERTICAL CURVES

18-1. General
18-2. Grade or gradient
18-3. Rate of change of gradient
18-4. Types of vertical curves
18-5. Equation of vertical curve
18-6. Length of vertical curve
18-7. Sight distance of vertical curve at summit
18-8. Sight distance of vertical curve at sag
18-9. Vertical curve passing through a fixed point
18-10. Setting out vertical curves
18-11. Typical problems on vertical curves
QUESTIONS 18
Chapter 19 FIELD ASTRONOMY
19-1. General
19-2. Some astronomical terms
19-3. Terrestrial latitude and longitude
19-4. Parallel of latitude
19-5. Nautical mile
19-6. Spherical trigonometry
19-7. Spherical triangle
19-8. Some useful data
19-9. Astronomical triangle
19-10. Star at elongation
19-11. Star at prime vertical

19-12. Star at culmination or transit
19-13. Circumpolar stars
19-14. Star at horizon
19-15. Relationships between co-ordinates
19-16. Time
QUESTIONS 19

Chapter 20 THEORY OF ERRORS

20-1. General
20-2. Accuracy and precision
20-3. Types of errors
20-4. Some definitions
20-5. Laws of accidental errors
20-6. Probability curve
20-7. Most probable value
20-8. Average error and maximum error
20-9. Mean square error
20-10. Method of least squares
20-11. Laws of weights
20-12. Rules for giving weights to the field observations
20-13. Distribution of error to the field observations
QUESTIONS 20

Chapter 21 SETTING OUT WORKS

21-1. General
21-2. General considerations
21-3. Control stations
21-4. Horizontal control
21-5. Vertical control
21-6. Setting out of structure
21-7. Setting out of important structures
QUESTIONS 21

Chapter 22 HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

22-1. General
22-2. Requirements of hydrographic survey
22-3. Shore line survey
22-4. Soundings
22-5. Location of soundings
22-6. Reduction of soundings
22-7. Tides
22-8. Tide gauges
QUESTIONS 22

Chapter 23 PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING

23-1. General
23-2. Classification of photogrammetry
23-3. Application of photogrammetry
23-4. Mosaics
QUESTIONS 23

Chapter 24 MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING

24-1. General
24-2. Electronic distance measurement instruments
24-3. Global positioning system
24-4. Geographic information system
24-5. Remote sensing
QUESTIONS 24

Appendix I QUESTION BANK AND SOLVED PROBLEMS
Appendix II MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Appendix III ABBREVIATED TERMS
Index

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