RAILWAY,BRIDGE AND TUNNEL ENGINEERING

350.00

By KETKI RANGWALA DALAL

2nd Edition 2016 (Paperback)
ISBN : 9789385039133
560 + 16 = 576 Pages
Size : 17 cm × 24 cm × 2.5 cm
Weight : 0.725 kg

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Description

This book aims at presenting the topics of Railway, Bridge and Tunnel Engineering written in a
simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical
and easy-to-follow style.
The Section I: Railway Engineering is well divided in to Thirteen chapters including Introduction;
Railway track gauges; Surveys and alignment of railway lines; Railway traction; Rails; Sleepers;
Ballast; Track fittings; Geometric design of a track; Resistance to traction; Points and crossings;
Railway stations and yards; Signalling and interlocking; etc.
The Section II: Bridge Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including Introduction;
Bridge foundations; Sub-structures; Classification of bridges; Bridge flooring; Bridge bearings;
Design of bridges; Construction and erection methods of bridge super-structure; Maintenance
of the bridges; etc.
The Section III: Tunnel Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including General aspects
of tunnelling; Alignment of a tunnel; Shafts and portals; Tunnelling in hard rock; Tunnelling in
soft ground; Tunnel lining; Lighting, ventilation and dust control in tunnels; Drainage of tunnels;
Safety in tunnel construction; etc.
The Appendix I gives Abbreviated Terms and Appendix II gives five solved examination papers
of GTU.
Salient features of this book are:
* 346 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches;
* 32 Illustrative problems;
* 40 Important useful tables;
* 590 Typical questions at the end of the chapters.
The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the
Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the Sixth Semester students of Civil Engineering
(Subject code: 160603) and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering
students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for
the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove great of interest and practical use to the practising professionals.

Additional information

Weight 0.725 kg
Dimensions 17 × 2.5 × 23.5 cm
Author Name

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Content

SECTION I: RAILWAY ENGINEERING
1 : INTRODUCTION
2 : RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES
3 : SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES
4 : RAILWAY TRACTION
5 : RAILS
6 : SLEEPERS
7 : BALLAST
8 : TRACK FITTINGS
9 : GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK
10 : RESISTANCE TO TRACTION
11 : POINTS AND CROSSINGS
12 : RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS
13 : SIGNALLING AND INTERLOCKING
SECTION II : BRIDGE ENGINEERING
14 : INTRODUCTION
15 : BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS
16 : SUB-STRUCTURES
17 : CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES
18 : BRIDGE FLOORING
19 : BRIDGE BEARINGS
20 : DESIGN OF BRIDGES
21 : CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF
BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE
22 : MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES
SECTION III: TUNNEL ENGINEERING
23 : GENERAL ASPECTS OF TUNNELLING
24 : ALIGNMENT OF A TUNNEL
25 : SHAFTS AND PORTALS
26 : TUNNELLING IN HARD ROCK
27 : TUNNELLING IN SOFT GROUND
28 : TUNNEL LINING
29 : LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND DUST CONTROL IN
TUNNELS
30 : DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS
31 : SAFETY IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION
APPENDICES
APPENDIX I ABBREVIATED TERMS
APPENDIX II GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS
INDEX

Content Details


Section I : RAILWAY ENGINEERING

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1. Brief history of railways
1-2. Importance of railways
1-3. Trends in modern railways
1-4. Trains of tomorrow (Maglev Trains)
1-5. Automatic train operation
1-6. Indian railways
1-7. Development of the Indian railway
1-8. Classification of Indian Railways
1-9. Achievements of Indian Railways
1-10. Future plan of indian railways
QUESTIONS 1

Chapter 2 RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES

2-1. Definition of gauge of track
2-2. Factors affecting the choice of a gauge
2-3. Types of gauges
2-4. Uniformity in gauges
2-5. Loading gauge
2-6. Construction gauge
2-7. Track capacity
2-8. Electrification on the Indian railways
QUESTIONS 2

Chapter 3 SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES

3-1. Reasons for laying a new railway line
3-2. Factors influencing the proposed route
3-3-1. Reconnaissance survey
3-3-2. Preliminary survey
3-3-3. Location survey
3-3-4. Railway Electrification Survey
3-4. Project report and drawings
3-5. Construction of new lines
QUESTIONS 3

Chapter 4 RAILWAY TRACTION

4-1. Tractive effort of a locomotive
4-2. Track stresses
QUESTIONS 4

Chapter 5 RAILS

5-1. Permanent way and its requirements
5-2. Functions of rails
5-3. Requirements of an ideal rail
5-4. Types of rails
5-5. Steel for rails
5-6. Weight and section of rails
5-7. Marking on rails
5-8. Corrugated or roaring rails
5-9. Corrosion of rails
5-10. Length of rail
5-11. Welding of rails
5-12. Wear of rails
5-13. Methods adopted to reduce wear of rails
5-14. Measuring wear of rails
5-15. Renewal of rails
5-16. Failure of rails
5-17. Coning of wheels
5-18. Hogged rails
5-19. Buckling
5-20. Creep of rails
5-20-1. Causes of creep
5-20-2. Factors determining magnitude of creep
5-20-3. Results of creep
5-20-4. Method of measuring the creep
5-20-5. Methods of correcting the creep
QUESTIONS 5

Chapter 6 SLEEPERS

6-1. Functions of sleepers
6-2. Types of sleepers
6-3. Requirements of an ideal material for sleeper
6-4. Materials for cross-sleepers
6-5. Sleeper density
QUESTIONS 6

Chapter 7 BALLAST

7-1. Functions of ballast
7-2. Requirements of an ideal material for ballast
7-3. Materials used as ballast
7-4. Size and quantity of ballast
7-5. Screening of ballast
QUESTIONS 7

Chapter 8 TRACK FITTINGS

8-1. Rail joints
8-2. Avoidance of rail joints
8-3. Types of rail joints
8-4. Requirements of an ideal fastening
8-5. Fastenings for rails
8-6. Fish-plates
8-7. Spikes, fang-bolts and hook-bolts
8-7-1. Spikes
8-7-2. Fang-bolts
8-7-3. Hook-bolts
8-8. Chairs and keys
8-9. Bearing-plates
QUESTIONS 8

Chapter 9 GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK

9-1. Objections to curvature of track
9-2. Designation of a curve
9-3. Types of curves and limiting radius or degree of curvature
9-4. Transition curves
9-5. Super-elevation or cant
9-6. Factors affecting super-elevation
9-7. Speed of trains on curves
9-8. Cant Deficiency and Negative super-elevation
9-9. Cant Excess
9-10. Grade compensation on curves
9-11. Bending of rails on curves
9-12. Cutting of rails on curves
9-13. Widening gauge on curves
9-14. Spirals for mountain railways
9-15. Switch-backs
9-16. Rack railways
9-17. String-lining of curves
9-18. Tilting train
QUESTIONS 9

Chapter 10 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION

10-1. Train resistances
10-2. Rolling stock
10-2-1. Locomotives
10-2-2. Coaches
10-2-3. Wagons
10-3. Train-brakes
10-4. Dynamometer car
QUESTIONS 10

Chapter 11 POINTS AND CROSSINGS

11-1. Purpose
11-2. Some definitions
11-3. Sleepers laid for points and crossings
11-4. Steel for points and crossings

11-5. Switches
11-6. Shapes of switches
11-7. Length of stock rails and tongue rails
11-8. Heel divergence or heel clearance
11-9. Switch angle
11-10. Throw of switch
11-11. Crossings
11-12. Types of crossings
11-13. Theoretical nose of crossing (T.N.C.) and actual nose of
crossing (A.N.C.)
11-14. Crossing clearance
11-15. Crossing number
11-16. Crossing angle
11-17. Different types of leads and their calculations
11-18. Laying of points and crossings
11-19. Maintenance of points and crossings
11-20. Combinations of points and crossings
11-20-1.Cross-overs
11-20-2.Scissors cross-overs
11-20-3.Slips
11-20-4.Fixed point
11-20-5.Three throws
11-20-6.Tandems or double turnouts
11-20-7.Gathering lines or ladder tracks
11-20-8.Gauntlet tracks
11-20-9.Double junctions
QUESTIONS 11

Chapter 12 RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS

12-1. General
12-2. Definition of a station
12-3. Purposes of a railway station
12-4. Selection of site for a railway station
12-5. Facilities required at railway stations
12-6. Classification of stations
12-6-1. Operational classification
12-6-2. Functional classification
12-7. Platforms
12-8. Staff quarters
12-9. Goods traffic at wayside stations
12-10. Catch sidings
12-11. Definition of a yard
12-12. Types of yards
12-12-1.Passenger yards
12-12-2.Goods yards
12-12-3.Marshalling yards
12-12-4.Locomotive yards
12-13. Level-crossing
12-14. Ash-pits, ash-pans and examination pits
12-15. Drop pits
12-16. Water columns
12-17. Triangles
12-18. Turntables
QUESTIONS 12

Chapter 13 SIGNALLING AND INTERLOCKING

13-1. Objects of signalling
13-2. Classification of signals
13-2-1. Classification according to function
13-2-2. Classification according to location
13-2-3. Special signals
13-3. Typical layouts
13-4. Interlocking
13-4-1. Essential principles of interlocking
13-4-2. Methods of interlocking

13-4-3. Slotting of signals
13-4-4. Detectors
13-4-5. Point lock and treadle or lock bar
13-4-6. Interlocking of level-crossings
13-4-7. Interlocking standards
13-4-8. Improvements in interlocking and signalling
QUESTIONS 13
Section II : BRIDGE ENGINEERING

Chapter 14 INTRODUCTION

14-1. General
14-2. Importance of bridges
14-3. Identification of bridges
14-4. Requirements of an Ideal Bridge
14-5. Selection of bridge site
14-6. Preliminary data to be collected for bridge project
14-7. Stages of investigation
14-8. Preliminary and final project drawings
14-9. Choice of bridge type
14-10. Components of a bridge
14-11. Approaches of bridge
14-12. Economic span of a bridge
14-13. Number of spans of a bridge
14-14. Afflux
14-15. Clearance and freeboard
14-16. Maximum flood discharge or High flood level (H.F.L.)
14-17. Length of a bridge
14-18. Grip length
14-19. Linear waterway of a bridge
14-20. Bridge alignment
14-21. Joints of bridge
14-22. Handrails
14-23. River training works
QUESTIONS 14

Chapter 15 BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS

15-1. General
15-2. Essential requirements of a good foundation
15-3. General principles of design of bridge foundations
15-4. Subsoil exploration
15-5. Testing of soil samples
15-6. Types of foundations
15-7. Spread foundations
15-8. Pile foundations
15-9. Caissons and Cofferdams
15-9-1. Classification of caissons
15-9-2. Materials used for the construction of caissons
15-9-3. Requirements of a cofferdam
15-9-4. Uses of caissons
15-9-5. Uses of cofferdams
15-9-6. Types of cofferdams
15-9-7. Prevention of leakage in cofferdams
15-9-8. Factors affecting design of a cofferdam
15-9-9. Difference between cofferdam and caisson
QUESTIONS 15

Chapter 16 SUB-STRUCTURES

16-1. General
16-2. Abutments
16-3. Piers
16-4. Wing walls
16-5. Setting out for piers and abutments
16-6. Materials for sub-structures
16-7. Bridge inspection
QUESTIONS 16

Chapter 17 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES

17-1. Introduction
17-2. Classification of bridges
17-3. Classification of bridges according to material used
17-4. Classification of bridges according to the position of bridge
floor
17-5. Classification of bridges according to the inter span relations
17-6. Classification of bridges according to the form or type of
super-structure
17-7. Classification of bridges according to the method of clearance
for navigation (Movable bridges)
17-8. Classification of bridges according to the length of span or
as per linear waterway
17-9. Classification of bridges according to the road level relative
to highest flood level (H.F.L.)
17-10. Classification of bridges according to life or expected period
of service of super-structure
17-10-1.Bridges with intermediate supports
17-10-2.Bridges without intermediate supports
17-10-3.Floating bridges
17-11. Classification of bridges according to flexibility of superstructure
17-12. Classification of bridges according to the alignment
17-13. Classification of bridges according to level of crossing of
highways and railways
17-14. Classification of bridges according to method of connections
adopted for different parts of super-structure
17-15. Classification of bridges according to the function of a bridge
17-16. Classification of bridges according to the degree of redundancy
17-17. Classification of bridges according to the loading
QUESTIONS 17

Chapter 18 BRIDGE FLOORING

18-1. General
18-2. Factors affecting the choice of flooring material
18-3. Requirements of a good flooring material
18-4. Types of floors
18-5. Flooring materials
18-6. Drainage of floors
QUESTIONS 18

Chapter 19 BRIDGE BEARINGS

19-1. Definition
19-2. Purposes or functions of bearings
19-3. Importance of bearings
19-4. Free and fixed bearings
19-5. Types of bearings
19-6. Materials for bearings
19-7. Bed blocks
19-8. Maintenance of bearings
QUESTIONS 19

Chapter 20 DESIGN OF BRIDGES

20-1. General
20-2. Buoyancy pressure
20-3. Centrifugal forces
20-4. Dead load
20-5. Deformation stresses
20-6. Earth pressure
20-7. Erection stresses
20-8. Impact load
20-9. Live load
20-10. Longitudinal forces
20-11. Secondary stresses
20-12. Seismic load
20-13. Temperature variation forces
20-14. Water pressure
20-15. Wind load

20-16. Design of bridge foundations
20-17. Forces acting on different components of a bridge
QUESTIONS 20

Chapter 21 CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF

BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE
21-1. General
21-2. Erection of steel girders
21-3. Erection of steel truss bridges
21-4. Erection of suspension bridges
21-5. Construction of pre-stressed concrete super-structure
21-6. Erection of R.C.C. and pre-stressed girder bridges
21-7. Formwork for arch bridges
QUESTIONS 21

Chapter 22 MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES

22-1. General
22-2. Deterioration of bridges
22-3. Bridge Failures
22-4. Defects of bridges and their rectification
22-5. Inspection of bridges
22-6. Posting of bridges
22-7. Rating of existing bridges
22-8. Rebuilding of bridges
22-9. Testing and strengthening of bridges
22-10. Maintenance of the bridges
QUESTIONS 22
Section III: TUNNEL ENGINEERING

Chapter 23 GENERAL ASPECTS OF TUNNELLING

23-1. General
23-2. Advantages and disadvantages of tunnelling
23-3. Advantages and disadvantages of open cuts
23-4. Alignment of a tunnel
23-5. Classification of tunnels
23-6. Shape of tunnels
23-7. Size of tunnels
23-8. Problems in tunnelling
QUESTIONS 23

Chapter 24 ALIGNMENT OF A TUNNEL

24-1. Investigations for tunnel site
24-2. Setting out or alignment of tunnel
24-3. Excavation
24-4. Excavation of tunnels in rock with machines
24-5. Blasting
QUESTIONS 24

Chapter 25 SHAFTS AND PORTALS

25-1. General
25-2. Advantages of shafts
25-3. Size of shafts
25-4. Location of shafts
25-5. Classification of shafts
25-6. Construction of shafts in rock
25-7. Construction of shaft in soft ground
25-8. Precautions for shaft sinking work in soft soil
25-9. Protection round the shaft opening
25-10. Portals
25-11. Twin tunnels
QUESTIONS 25


Chapter 26 TUNNELLING IN HARD ROCK

26-1. General
26-2. Sequence of operations for tunnelling in rock
26-3. Faces of attack for tunnelling in rock
26-4. Methods of tunnelling in rock
26-5. Mucking
26-6. Hauling
26-7. Safety precautions in rock tunnelling
QUESTIONS 26

Chapter 27 TUNNELLING IN SOFT GROUND

27-1. Soil classification
27-2. Choice of method
27-3. Methods of tunnelling in soft ground
27-4. Forepoling method
27-5. Needle beam method
27-6. Army method or case method
27-7. American method
27-8. English method
27-9. Belgian method
27-10. German method
27-11. Austrian method
27-12. Liner plates method
27-13. Shield tunnelling
27-13-1.Dimensions of shield
27-13-2.Parts of shield
27-13-3.Terms used with shield
27-13-4.Primary lining
27-13-5.General steps of tunnelling with shield
27-13-6.Shield tunnelling in different types of soils
27-13-7.Common Equipments with shield
27-13-8.Stages of using the shield
27-14. Timbering in soft soil tunnelling
QUESTIONS 27

Chapter 28 TUNNEL LINING

28-1. Necessity of lining
28-2. Objects of lining
28-3. Materials for lining
28-4. Sequence of lining a tunnel
QUESTIONS 28

Chapter 29 LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND DUST CONTROL
IN TUNNELS

29-1. Tunnel lighting
29-1-1. Spacing of lights
29-1-2. Types of tunnel lights
29-2. Ventilation in tunnels
29-2-1. Objects of tunnel ventilation
29-2-2. Requirements of tunnel ventilation
29-2-3. Volume of air required
29-2-4. Methods of ventilation
29-2-5. Equipments for ventilation
29-2-6. Permanent ventilation
29-3. Dust control
QUESTIONS 29

Chapter 30 DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS

30-1. General
30-2. Pre-drainage
30-3. Dewatering (Temporary drainage)
30-4. Pumping (Temporary drainage)
30-5. Permanent drainage
QUESTIONS 30

Chapter 31 SAFETY IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION

31-1. General
31-2. Safety precautions in tunnelling
31-3. Health protection
QUESTIONS 31

APPENDICES
Appendix I ABBREVIATED TERMS
Appendix II GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS
Index

This book aims at presenting the topics of Railway, Bridge and Tunnel Engineering written in a
simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical
and easy-to-follow style.
The Section I: Railway Engineering is well divided in to Thirteen chapters including Introduction;
Railway track gauges; Surveys and alignment of railway lines; Railway traction; Rails; Sleepers;
Ballast; Track fittings; Geometric design of a track; Resistance to traction; Points and crossings;
Railway stations and yards; Signalling and interlocking; etc.
The Section II: Bridge Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including Introduction;
Bridge foundations; Sub-structures; Classification of bridges; Bridge flooring; Bridge bearings;
Design of bridges; Construction and erection methods of bridge super-structure; Maintenance
of the bridges; etc.
The Section III: Tunnel Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including General aspects
of tunnelling; Alignment of a tunnel; Shafts and portals; Tunnelling in hard rock; Tunnelling in
soft ground; Tunnel lining; Lighting, ventilation and dust control in tunnels; Drainage of tunnels;
Safety in tunnel construction; etc.
The Appendix I gives Abbreviated Terms and Appendix II gives five solved examination papers
of GTU.
Salient features of this book are:
* 346 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches;
* 32 Illustrative problems;
* 40 Important useful tables;
* 590 Typical questions at the end of the chapters.
The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the
Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the Sixth Semester students of Civil Engineering
(Subject code: 160603) and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering
students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for
the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove great of interest and practical use to the practising professionals.

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