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IRRIGATION ENGINEERING

225.00 202.50

By DR. N. P. SINGH, T. BANERJEE, M. J. DHOLAWALA

1st Edition 2015 (Paperback)
ISBN : 9789385039034
272 + 16 = 288 Pages
Size : 17 cm × 24 cm × 1.3 cm
Weight : 0.365 kg

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Description

This text-book aims at presenting the topics of Irrigation Engineering in a simple manner. Each
topic of the book has been arranged in such a way that reader is empowered with in-depth
knowledge of the subject. It lays stress on clarity of concepts and enhancement of understanding of design principles of Irrigation Engineering Structures.
The book is arranged into 5 modules and 7 chapters
Module 1: Chapter 1 gives Introduction of the subject of Irrigation Engineering. It conceptualizes soil water plant relationship and also highlights history of irrigation development in India.
Chapter 2 is on Water Requirements of Crops.
Module 2: Chapter 3 covers the topics on the Methods of Irrigation.
Chapter 4 discusses Irrigation Channels (Canals) and explains procedures for their
design.
Module 3: Chapter 5 is about Diversion Head Works and gives detailed design procedure for
the sloping glacis weir with solved examples.
Module 4: Chapter 6 gives Cross Drainage Works including detailed designing of canal transitions.
Module 5: Chapter 7 covers the topic of Canal Regulation Works.
The Appendix I gives University Paper with Answers. In Appendix II Photographs of Cross Regulators and Head Regulators are given. In Appendix III Photographs of Regulation Structures
are provided.
At the end of each chapter a summary is provided. The book also contains
* 147 Self explanatory and neatly drawn drawings
* 61 Numerical problems from past GTU question papers and other numerical
problems in each chapter
* 39 Useful Tables
* 89 Questions at the end of all the chapters.
This book is designed to cover the syllabus of subject of Irrigation Engineering (Subject code:
170602) being taught in the seventh semester of bachelor of civil engineering course under
Gujarat Technological University (GTU). The book should also prove to be useful to the Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, having
similar syllabus as GTU. Understanding the design principles helps in developing the analytical
ability of the reader. It also lays the foundation for becoming a design professional in the field
of Irrigation Engineering.

Additional information

Weight 0.365 kg
Dimensions 17 × 1.3 × 24 cm
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Content

MODULE I
1 : INTRODUCTION
2 : WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS
MODULE II
3 : METHODS OF IRRIGATION
4 : IRRIGATION CHANNELS (CANAL)
MODULE III
5 : DIVERSION HEAD WORKS
MODULE IV
6 : CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS
MODULE V
7 : CANAL REGULATION WORKS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I : UNIVERSITY PAPER
APPENDIX II : PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING CROSS
REGULATORS AND HEAD REGULATORS
APPENDIX III: PHOTOGRAPHS REGULATION
STRUCTURES
INDEX

Details Content


MODULE I
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1. Necessity of irrigation
1-2. Scope of irrigation engineering
1-3. Benefits of irrigation
(1) Increase in crop yield (3) Revenue generation
(2) Employment generation (4) Insurance against droughts
(5) Raising of ground water table
(6) Production of electricity
(7) Transportation and communication
(8) Self Sufficiency in food grains and production of cash crops
1-4. Ill Effects of irrigation
(1) Rise of water table and water logging
(2) Development of unhealthy surroundings
(3) Pollution of ground water
(4) Damage to eco systems
1-5. Types of irrigation systems
(1) Depending upon the level
(2) Depending upon the duration
(3) Surface and subsurface irrigation
1-6. Soil water plant relationship
1-6-1. Terms and definitions
(1) Moisture content (8) Optimum moisture content
(2) Field capacity (F.C.) (O.M.C.)
(3) Permanent wilting point (9) Hygroscopic water content
(P.W.P.) (10) Depth of soil
(4) Ultimate wilting point (11)Consumptive use
(5) Temporary wilting point(12)Irrigation interval
(6) Available water (13)Irrigation period
(7) Readily available moisture
1-6-2. How to decide the frequency and depth of irrigation knowing
the plant and soil properties
1-7. Typical problems
1-8. Plant growth and optimum Moisture content
1-9. Irrigation development in India
Summary 1
Exercise 1

Chapter 2 WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS

2-1. Storage requirements for irrigating crops and design discharge
in canals
(1) Duty (10)The relationship between
(2) Duty for flowing water duty delta and base period
(3) Duty of water for tube for flow irrigation
well irrigation (11) Gross command area
(4) Duty of water for tank (12)Culturable command area
irrigation (13)Culturable cultivated area
(5) Crop period (CCA)
(6) Base period (14)Intensity of irrigation
(7) Delta (15)Capacity factor
(8) Base Period and kor (16)Time factor
Period
(9) Delta for base period (17) Overlap allowance
2-1-1. Storage requirements
2-1-2. Design discharge of canal
2-2. Factors affecting duty and how to improve duty
2-2-1. Factors affecting duty of water
(1) Types of crops (3) Quality of water
(2) System of irrigation (4) Canal conditions
(5) On farm management
(6) Point of measurement of duty
2-2-2. Methods of improving duty of Irrigation water
2-3. Irrigation efficiencies
(1) Conveyance efficiency (2) Water application efficiency
(3) Water storage efficiency(4) Water distribution efficiency
2-4. Assessment of irrigation water and water charges
(1) Volumetric assessment (2) Charges on area basis
(3) Assessment on composite rate basis

(4) Water charges on seasonal basis
(5) Permanent assessment or betterment levy basis
2-5. Determination of water requirement of crops: Consumptive use
(1) Evaporation (3) Evapotranspiration
(2) Transpiration (4) Consumptive use
2-5-1. Blaney criddle method
2-5-2. Hargreaves class A pan Evaporation method
2-5-3. The penman method
2-5-4. Soil moisture studies
2-5-5. Determination of consumptive use by use of lysimeter
2-5-6. Experimental plots
2-5-7. Method of integration for determination of consumptive use
for the water shed
2-5-8. Determination of consumptive use by inflow outflow method
Summary 2
Exercise 2

MODULE II

Chapter 3 METHODS OF IRRIGATION

3-1. Classification of irrigation methods
3-2. Choice of irrigation methods
3-3-1. Flooding methods
(1) Uncontrolled or wild flooding
(2) Controlled flooding
3-3-2. Furrow irrigation
(1) Length of furrows
(2) Provisions of slope for the furrows
(3) Spacing of furrows
(4) Furrow stream size
3-3-3. Contour farming
3-4. Sub surface irrigation methods
(1) Natural sub surface irrigation
(2) Artificial sub surface irrigation
3-5. Drip or trickle irrigation
(1) Components of a drip irrigation system
(2) Advantages of drip irrigation
(3) Disadvantages of drip irrigation
3-6. Sprinkler irrigation
3-6-1. Components of a sprinkler irrigation system
(1) Pumping unit, (2) Pipe networks, (3) Sprinklers
3-6-2. Different types of sprinklers
(1) Fixed nozzle pipe type sprinkler
(2) Perforated pipe type sprinkler
(3) Rotating head type sprinkler
3-6-3. Classification of sprinkler system
(1) Portable system (4) Solid set system
(2) Semi portable system (5) Permanent system
(3) Semi permanent system
3-6-4. Advantages of sprinkler irrigation
(2) Disadvantages of sprinkler irrigation
3-7. Comparison of sprinkler and drip irrigation
Summary 3
Exercise 3

Chapter 4 IRRIGATION CHANNELS (CANAL)

4-1. Introduction
4-2. Classification of irrigation canals
(1) Based on the nature of source of supply
(2) Based on the function of the canal
(3) Based on discharge and relative importance in a network
(4) Based on financial output
(5) Based on the soil through which constructed
(6) Based on the lining being provided or not
(7) Classification based on canal alignment
4-3. Canal Alignment
4-4. Losses in canals
(1) Losses due to evaporation
(2) Losses due to transpiration through bank vegetation or weeds
(3) Losses due to percolations

4-5. Types of channels
(1) Non-alluvial channels
(2) Rigid boundary channels or lined channels
(3) Alluvial channels
4-5-1. Channels of most economical cross-sections
4-6. Design of canal in Non-alluvial soils
(1) Side slopes
(2) Flow equations
(3) Design procedure
4-7. Design of channels in non-alluvial soils
4-8. Design of canals in alluvial soils
4-9. Kennedy’s silt theory
4-10. Design of channels by Kennedy’s silt theory
4-11. Drawbacks in Kennedy’s theory
4-12. Lacey’s regime theory
(1) Regime channel (5) Initial regime
(2) Regime conditions (6) Final regime
(3) Regime silt charge (7) Permanent regime
(4) Regime silt grade (8) Cross-section of regime channel
4-12-1.Lacey’s regime equations
(1) V – Q – f Relation
(2) P – Q Relation
(3) Regime flow equation
(5) Regime scour depth equation
(4) Regime slope equations
4-13. Design of channels by Lacey’s theory
4-14. Drawbacks of Lacey’s theory
4-15. Comparison between Kennedy’s and Lacey’s theories
4-16. Cross-section of an irrigation channel
(1) Side slopes (6) Dowel or Dowla
(2) Berm (7) Service road or
(3) Free board inspection road
(4) Top width of banks (8) Borrow pits
(5) Counter berm or back (9) Spoil banks
berm (10)Land width
4-17. Balancing depth
4-18. Use of Garret’s diagrams for channel design
4-19. Use of Lacey’s regime diagrams for channel design
4-20. Design of canal in alluvial soils
4-21. Lining of irrigation channels
(1) Necessity of lining
(2) Advantages of lining
(3) Disadvantages of lining of irrigation channels
(4) Requirements of channel lining
(5) Types of linings
4-22. Design of lined channel
(1) Side slopes
(2) Limiting velocities
(3) Procedure for design of lined channel data is required
(4) Design steps
4-23. Drainage behind lining
(1) Pressure relief valves
(2) Weep holes
(3) Longitudinal and transverse drains
(4) Hump or dwarf regulator
4-24. Numerical problems on design of canals
4-25. Water logging
4-25-1.Causes of water logging
(1) Seepage from canals (5) Inadequate surface drainage
(2) Nature of soil (6) Obstruction of natural
(3) Over irrigation of drainage
agricultural fields (7) Destruction of natural
(4) Incorrect and defective drainage
method of cultivation (8) Construction of reservoir
4-25-2.Effects of water logging
(1) Reduction in productivity of plants
(2) Absence of aeration in root zone of plants
(3) Difficulty in cultivation
(4) Growth of weeds
(5) Development of saline conditions
(6) Lower soil temperature
(7) Plant diseases
(8) Restricted root growth
(9) Damp climate
4-25-3.Preventive measures of water logging
(1) Adopting suitable irrigation method
(2) Changing crop pattern
(3) Changing revenue policy
(4) Lining of channels
(5) Provision of intercepting drains along channels
(6) Provision of a drainage system
(7) Impairing the natural drainage of area
(8) Pumping of ground water
4-26. Drainage systems
(1) Open drains
(2) Drawbacks of open drains
(3) Closed drains
(4) Layout of a closed drain system
4-27. Land reclamation
(1) Adequate drainage
(2) Chemicals
(3) Rotation of crops
(4) Leaching
(5) Rice cultivation
(6) Use of agricultural waste products
(7) Green manuring
(8) Using argemona plants and processed coal
(9) Electro-dialysis
Summary 4
Exercise 4

MODULE III
Chapter 5 DIVERSION HEAD WORKS

5-1. Introduction
5-2. Types of weir
(1) Gravity weir
(2) Non-gravity weir
(1) Vertical drop masonry weir
(2) Sloping glacis weir
(3) Parabolic weir
(4) Rock fill weir
5-3. Difference between weir and barrage
5-4. Components of weir
5-4-1. Guide bund
5-4-2. Marginal bunds
5-4-3. Fish ladder
5-4-4. Divide wall
5-4-5. Silt control devices
5-4-6. Head regulator
5-5. Location of weir
5-6. Causes of failure of structure on permeable foundations
5-6-1. Failure due to surface flows
5-6-2. Failure due to sub surface seepage flows
5-7. Bligh’s theory
5-7-1. Use of Bligh’s theory in weir design
5-7-2. Exit gradient
5-7-3. Limitations of Bligh’s theory

5-8. Khosla’s theory
5-8-1. Khosla’s solution by use of flow net and S. C. Transformation
5-8-2. Khosla’s method of independent variables
5-9. Correction to pressure at key points
5-9-1. Correction for thickness of floor by Khosla’s theory
5-9-2. Correction due to slope
5-9-3. Correction for mutual interference of piles
5-10. Sloping glacis weir
5-10-1.Relevant definitions
(1) Afflux
(2) Retrogression (d/s retrogression)
(3) Lacey’s silt factor
5-10-2.Design Components
5-10-3.Design Calculations
(1) The calculations involve(2) Data that must be given
the following steps (3) Use of curves
5-10-3-1. Hydraulic calculations given the following data
(1) Hydraulic calculations
5-10-3-2. Hydraulic jump calculations
(1) Calculation of pre-jump depth
(2) Calculation of post jump depth
(3) Length of the hydraulic jump
(4) Location of the hydraulic jump
5-10-3-3. Calculation of length of impervious horizontal floor
5-10-3-4. Hydraulic gradient line calculations
(1) Levels for pond level flow
(2) Correction to sub surface seepage pressure at key points
5-10-3-5. Calculation for floor thickness
(1) Highest flood level flow condition
(2) Pond level flow condition
(3) No flow condition (Pond level static head condition)
5-10-3-6. Invert filter design and related calculations
5-10-3-7. Depth of sheet pile
5-10-3-8. Calculations for launching apron design
(1) The material of the river bed
(2) longitudinal slope of the river bed
Summary 5
Exercise 5
MODULE IV

Chapter 6 CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS

6-1. Introduction
6-2. Types of cross drainage work
6-3. Factors affecting selection of suitable cross drainage works
6-4. Classification of aqueduct and siphon-aqueducts
6-5. Selection of a suitable type of aqueduct or siphon aqueduct
(1) Culvert or barrel length
(2) Length of aqueduct or siphon aqueduct
(3) Bank connection
6-6. Selection of site for cross Drainage work
6-7. Design of cross drainage works
(1) Hydraulic design (2) Structural design

6-8. Step by step procedure for hydraulic design of cross drainage work
(1) Determination of maximum flood discharge and high
flood level
(2) Determination of waterway of the drain
(3) Head loss through siphon barrels
(4) Contraction of canal waterway or fluming
(5) Determination of uplift pressure on the underside of the
trough (or the barrel roof)
(6) Determination of uplift pressure on the floor of the
aqueduct
(7) Design of bank connections
6-9. Planning and design of cross drainage works
Summary 6
Exercise 6
MODULE V

Chapter 7 CANAL REGULATION WORKS

7-1. Canal regulation works
7-2. Canal falls
7-3. Necessity and location of canal falls
7-4. Classifications of falls
(1) Falls which maintain the normal depth discharge ratio
(2) Falls which maintain a fixed water level in the channel
upstream of the fall
(3) Falls which admit the variation of the water level in the
channel upstream
(4) Miscellaneous falls
7-5. Type of falls
(1) Vertical drop fall
(2) Glacis type fall
7-6. Canal regulators
(1) Off take alignment
(2) Cross regulator
(3) Distributary head regulator
7-7. Silt control devices: Silt ejectors
(1) King’s vanes
(2) Gibb’s groyne wall
(3) Skimming platform
7-8. Other structure in canals
7-9. Channel escapes
(1) Necessity of surplus water escape
(2) Type of escapes: Escapes are classified based on
Summary 7
Exercise 7
REFERENCES

Appendix I UNIVERSITY PAPER
Appendix II PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING CROSS
REGULATORS AND HEAD REGULATORS
Appendix III PHOTOGRAPHS REGULATION STRUCTURES
Index

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