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CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING

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By RANGWALA

3rd Edition 2017 (Revised & Enlarged) (Paperback)
ISBN : 9789385039300
516+ 20= 536 Pages
Size : 17 cm × 23.5 cm × 2.1 cm
Weight : 0.670 kg

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Description

Civil Engineering Drawing is an inevitable subject in learning Civil Engineering and Architecture.
This thoroughly revised, extensively enlarged and completely modified third edition presents
plenty of new material by adding and updating its contents to enhancing and widening its
coverage. Plenty of new drawings are added and all other drawings are redrawn with full details
and in scale. The entire book is divided into two parts:
Part I : Civil Engineering Drawing
Part II : Computer Aided Building Drawing.
Three new chapters are added:
(1) Earthquake Resistant Buildings;
(2) Classification of Buildings; and
(3) Computer Aided Building Drawing.
Topics of Sciography are introduced in the chapter of Perspective Drawings and Sciography.
The outline of the book is:
PART I: CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING
Chapter 01 : Introduction to the subject with history, development and order of architecture.
Chapter 02 : Guidelines for preparing building drawings
Chapter 03 : Various methods and types of drawings such as orthographic, axonometric
drawings viz., isometric, dimetric, trimetric, oblique, etc.
Chapter 04 : Submission and working drawings.
Chapter 05 : Perspective drawings and sciography.
Chapter 06 : Gives all aspects of principles of planning.
Chapter 07 : Provides architectural compositions.
Chapter 08 : Building bye-laws.
Chapter 09 : Introduce earthquake resistant buildings.
Chapter 10 : Classification of buildings.
Chapter 11 : Planning of residential buildings.
Chapter 12 : Planning of industrial structures.
Chapter 13 : Planning of public buildings.
Chapter 14 : Gives various important miscellaneous topics which are connected with the
subject of civil engineering drawing, building planning and town planning.
PART II: COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING
Chapter 15 : This chapter gives introduction to computer aided drafting with many selfinteractive and self-learning practice modules.
It is hoped that the book will satisfy the needs of the students preparing for the Degree
examinations in Civil Engineering and Architecture of almost all the Indian Universities, Diploma
examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate courses as well
as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional
Examinations. It should also be of an immense help to the practising Civil Engineers.

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Weight 0.67 kg
Dimensions 17 × 2.1 × 23.5 cm
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Content

PART I : CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING
1 : INTRODUCTION
2 : GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING DRAWINGS
3 : METHODS OF DRAWINGS
4 : SUBMISSION AND WORKING DRAWINGS
5 : PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS AND SCIOGRAPHY
6 : PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING
7 : ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION
8 : BUILDING BYE-LAWS
9 : EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS
10 : CLASSIFICATION OF THE BUILDINGS
11 : PLANNING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
12 : PLANNING OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES
13 : PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS
14 : MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
PART II : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING
15 : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX

Content Details


PART I : CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1-1. General
1-2. Evolution and development of architecture
(1) Climate (4) Religion
(2) Geology (5) Type of construction
(3) Politics
(1) Babylonians (2) Assyrians
(3) Persians
1-3. Order of architecture
1-3-1. Doric order
(1) Greek Doric (2) Roman Doric
1-3-2. Ionic order
(1) Greek Ionic (2) Roman Ionic
1-3-3. Corinthian order
(1) Greek Corinthian (2) Roman Corinthian
1-3-4. Tuscan order
1-3-5. Composite order
1-4. Greek and Roman styles of architecture
(1) Greek architecture (2) Roman architecture
1-5. Architecture in India
(1) Climate (3) Religion
(2) Geology
QUESTIONS 1

Chapter 2 GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING DRAWINGS

2-1. General
2-2. Conventions
2-3. Drawing instruments
(1) Drawing compass (6) Set-squares
(2) Drawing board (7) Scales
(3) T-square (8) Tracing cloth
(4) Drawing paper (9) Miscellaneous
(5) French curves
2-4. Title block
(1) Architect name (4) Job title
(2) Date (5) Scale
(3) Drawing title (6) Space for staff
2-5. Scales
2-6. Line work
2-7. Lettering
(1) Clear of lines (5) Reading
(2) Designation (6) Sizes
(3) Main requirements (7) Types
(4) Photographic reproduction (8) Underlining
2-8. Conventional signs and Symbols
2-9. Abbreviations used in building drawing
2-10. Tracing
2-11. Blue-prints
2-12. Ammonia-prints
2-13. Computer output devices
(1) Pen Plotter (3) Laser printers
(2) Ink-jet Printers/Plotters
QUESTIONS 2

Chapter 3 METHODS OF DRAWINGS

3-1. General
3-2. Types of drawings
(1) Orthographic drawings (2) Pictorial drawings
3-3. Axonometric drawing
(1) Isometric drawing (3) Trimetric drawing
(2) Dimetric drawing
3-4. Oblique drawing
3-5. Perspective drawing
3-6. Architectural drawings
3-7. Isometric drawings
3-7.1. Isometric length for isometric projections
3-7.2. Isometric scale
3-7-3. Isometric axes, lines and planes
3-7-4. To draw isometric view of a circle (isocircle)
3-7-5. Illustrative examples of isometric drawings
3-7-6. Illustrative problems on isometric drawings
QUESTIONS 3

Chapter 4 SUBMISSION AND WORKING DRAWINGS

4-1. General
4-2. Requirements of a good drawing
4-3. Sketches
4-4. Views and details necessary for a drawing
(1) Plan (3) Section
(2) Elevation
4-5. Site plan
4-6. Layout plan and key or location plan
(1) Layout Plan (2) Key plan or location plan
4-7. Composition of submission drawing
4-8. Engineering drawing and architectural drawing
4-9. Teaching civil engineering drawing
(1) Sketching (3) Measured drawing
(2) Tracing (4) Development of line plan
4-10. Presentation drawings
(1) Axonometric view of plan and perspective
(2) Floor plan and rendered elevation
(3) Perspective drawing with elevations
4-11. Differences between submission drawing and working drawing
QUESTIONS 4

Chapter 5 PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS AND SCIOGRAPHY
PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS

5-1. Introduction — Perspective drawings
5-2. Principle of perspective projection
5-3. History of perspective drawings
5-4. Necessity of perspective drawings
(1) Architect or planner
(2) Client or owner of property
5-5. Characteristics of perspective
5-6. Elements of perspective projection
(1) Ground Plane (GP) (6) Horizon Line (HL)
(2) Station point (SP) or Eye (7) Axis of Vision (AV)
Level Point or Perpendicular Axis
(3) Picture Plane (PP) (8) Centre of Vision (CV)
(4) Horizontal Plane (HP) (9) Central Plane (CP)
(5) Ground Line (GL) (10) Visual Rays (VR)
5-7. Station point (sp) position
5-8. Picture plane (PP)
5-9. Vanishing point (VP)
5-10. Angle of vision
5-11. Cone of vision
5-12. Rules of perspective
5-13. Types of perspective
(1) Parallel Perspective or One Point Perspective
(2) Two Point Perspective or Angular Perspective
(3) Three Point Perspective or Oblique Perspective
5-14. Line of heights (H) or measuring line
5-15. Problems on one point perspective
5-16. Problems on two point perspective
5-17. Problems on three point perspective
5-18. Limitation of perspective
(1) Graphical process (4) Photography
(2) Human eye (5) Selection of view
(3) Linear perspective
SCIOGRAPHY
5-19. Introduction — Sciography
5-20. Shade
5-21. Shadow
5-22. Shape of shadow
5-23. Principles of shadow casting
5-24. Purpose of shades and shadow
5-25. Source of light
(1) Light sources according to colour groups
(2) Light sources according to types of lamps
5-26. Artificial light
5-27. Construction of shadow for cube
5-28. Construction of shadow for cylinder
5-29. Construction of shadow for perspective
5-30. Construction of shadow for hut
5-31. Colour schemes

(1) General (2) Colour categories
(3) Neutral colours and colour schemes
(4) Categories of colour schemes
QUESTIONS 5

Chapter 6 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING

6-1. General
6-2. Modern architecture
6-3. Main considerations of architectural design
6-3-1. Bye-laws of the locality
6-3-2. Climate and its effects
(1) Cyclonic systems (4) Nearness of water
(2) Latitude (5) Ocean currents
(3) Mountains (6) Winds
Indian seasons
(1) Hot-dry (2) Hot-wet
6-3-3. Materials and methods of construction
6-3.4. People and their requirements
6-4. Orientation
(1) Cross ventilation (5) Roof
(2) Damp-proof course (6) Treatment of ground
(3) Placing of walls (7) Wind direction
(4) Projections
6-5. Essential factors of planning
(1) Aspect (7) Grouping
(2) Circulation (8) Privacy
(3) Economy (9) Prospect
(4) Elegance (10)Roominess
(5) Flexibility (11) Sanitation
(6) Furniture requirements
QUESTION 6

Chapter 7 ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION

7-1. General
7-2. Principles of composition
(1) Contrast (4) Scales
(2) Mass composition (5) Unity
(3) Proportion
7-3. Positive and negative elements
7-4. Accentuation and rhythm
7-5. Character
(1) Functional character (3) Traditional character
(2) Personal character
7-6. Functional treatment
7-7. Sun-shading devices
(1) Awnings (3) Overhangs
(2) Louvres (4) Screens
QUESTIONS 7

Chapter 8 BUILDING BYE-LAWS

8-1. General
(1) Standard (3) Regulation
(2) Norm (4) Bye-law (5) Law
8-2. Objects of bye-laws
8-3. Importance of bye-laws
(1) Consultation with superior authority
(2) Consultation with subordinate authority
(3) Consultation with interested groups
8-4. Functions of a local authority
(1) Building bye-laws (2) Powers to architects
8-5. Responsibility of owner
(1) Surveyor (4) Structural designer
(2) Architect (5) Clerk of works
(3) Engineer
8-6. Applicability of bye-laws
(1) Additions and alterations to a building
(2) New construction
(3) Requirement of open space
8-7. Principles underlying building bye-laws
8-8. Set-back or building line
8-9. Light plane
8-10. Floor space index
8-11. Off-street parking
8-12. Fire protection

(1) Lift and stair (3) Special provisions
(2) Water supply
8-13. Minimum plot sizes
8-14. Thickness of walls
8-15. Plinth
8-16. Cellar
8-17. Height of floors
8-18. Loft
8-19. Stairs, lifts, lobbies and corridor
8-20. Sanitary accommodation
(1) Office and public buildings
(2) Industrial buildings and warehouses
(3) Educational buildings
(4) Residential building or residential tenements
8-21. Ventilation
(1) Ventilation of rooms
(2) Factories and building of the warehouses
(3) Ventilation of stair-cases
(4) Windows in stair-case bay
(5) Ventilation from the top and skylight etc.
8-22. Sills of openings
8-23. Stairway or staircase
(1) Width (5) Head room
(2) Flight (6) Floor indicator
(3) Risers (7) Hand Rail
(4) Treads (8) Pitch
8-24. Ramps
(1) Ramps for pedestrians
(2) Ramps for handicapped people
(3) Ramps for basement or storied parking
8-25. Roofs
8-26. Parapets and terraces
8-27. Mosquito-proof water tank
8-28. Refuse area/disposal of solid waste
(1) For residential buildings
(2) For nonresidential buildings
(3) For hospitals, hotels, restaurants
8-29. Discharge of rain water
8-30. Provision of letter box
8-31. Margins and maximum built-up area
(1) Residential and commercial use
(2) Industrial use
8-32. Permissible built up area in margin
8-33. Projections in margin
8-34. Margin from common plot
8-35. Open space
8-36. Definitions of Some terms
(1) Auditorium (23) Mezzanine floor
(2) Basement or cellar (24) Neighbourhood centre
(3) Building unit and civic centre
(4) Commercial building (25) Natural hazard prone areas
(5) Consolidated open plot(26) Occupancy or use
(C.O.P) (27) Open space
(6) Domestic building (28) Owner
(7) Dwelling house (29) Office building
(8) Dwelling unit (30) Ownership tenement flats
(9) Height of building (31) Parapet
(10) Gamtal (32) Parking space
(11) Garage — private (33) Partition
(12) Garage — public (34) Permission
(13) Habitable room (35) Plinth
(14) Height of a room (36) Plinth area
(15) Home occupation (37) Pent house
(16) Hazardous material (38) Porch or portico
(17) Hut (39) Public and semi-public
(18) Industrial building building
(19) Lift (40) Public purpose
(20) Loft (41)Road or street
(21) Low-rise and high-rise (42)Road-level or street-level
buildings or grade
(22) Margin (43)Road line or street line

(44) Road width (55)Theatre and cinema
(45) Row houses (56)Water-closet (W.C.)
(46) Semi-detached building(57)Water course
(47) Service road (58)Water course, major
(48) Shopping centre (59)Water tanks or talav
(49) Skip floor or pond or lake
(50) Smoke-stop door (60)Warehouse or godown
(51) Stair cover (61)Window
(52) Storey (62)Width of street
(53) Tenement
(54) Tenement buildings and flats
8-37. Building bye-laws for gamtal area
(1) Minimum area (5) Open spaces
(2) Access to buildings (6) Height of buildings
(3) Set back (7) Projections on set
(4) Margins backs
8-38. Bye-laws for cinemas, theatres, multiplex, meeting halls, lecture
halls, town halls, auditorium, etc.
(1) Air-condition (10) Projection room
(2) Aisles (passages) (11)Rewinding room
(3) Balcony (12) Sanitary
(4) Booking office and accommodations
manager’s room (13) Screen
(5) Doors (14) Seats
(6) Front open space (15) Size of plot
(7) Foyer and auditorium(16) Stairs
(8) Location (17) Ventilation
(9) Parking (18)Water-room and snack bars
8-39. Bye-laws for drive-in cinemas
(1) Boundaries (6) Projection room
(2) Entrance and exit (7) Rows of motor cars
(3) Frontage (8) Screen
(4) Loud speaker poles (9) Size of picture
(5) Passage (10)Width of bay
8-40. Bye-laws for gasoline filling stations and gasoline filling cum
service station
(1) Entrance and exit (3) Parking
consideration (4) Size
(2) Location (5) Traffic requirements
QUESTIONS 8

Chapter 9 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS

9-1. Earthquake
9-2. Earthquake terminology
(1) Focus or hypocenter (4) Epicentral distance
(2) Epicenter (5) Aftershocks
(3) Focal depth (6) Foreshocks
9-3. Earthquake Resistant Buildings
9-4. Earthquake design philosophy
9-5. Design concept of earthquake resistant buildings
9-6. Earthquake resistant buildings by planning and design approach
(1) Conventional approach
(2) Basic approach
9-7. Construction techniques for earthquake resistant buildings
(1) Avoid hollow plinth (6) Horizontal bands
Design improvement (7) Seismic dampers
(2) Base isolation (8) Shear walls
(3) Beam-column junctions (9) Short column effect
(4) Brick masonry buildings (10) Vertical reinforcement
(5) Construction materials
QUESTIONS 9

Chapter 10 CLASSIFICATION OF THE BUILDINGS

10-1. General
(1) Assembly buildings (8) Recreation buildings
(2) Business buildings (9) Residential buildings
(3) Educational buildings(10) Storage buildings
(4) Hazardous buildings (11)Transportation
(5) Health buildings buildings
(6) Industrial buildings (12)Worship buildings
(7) Institutional buildings
10-2. Types of buildings

10-2-1. Group A: Residential buildings
(1) Sub-group A-1: Lodging or rooming houses
(2) Sub-group A-2: One or two family private dwellings
(3) Sub-group A-3: Dormitories
(4) Sub-group A-4: Apartment houses (Flats)
(5) Sub-group A-5: Hotels
10-2-2. Group B: Educational buildings
10-2-3. Group C: Institutional buildings
(1) Sub-group C-1: Hospitals and Sanitaria
(2) Sub-group C-2: Custodial Institutions
(3) Sub-group C-3: Penal Institutions
10-2-4. Group D: Assembly buildings
10-2-5. Group E: Business buildings
10-2-6. Group F: Mercantile buildings
10-2-7. Group G: Industrial buildings
10-2-8. Group H: Storage buildings
10-2-9. Group I: Hazardous buildings
10-3. Basic functional requirements of a building
(1) Comfort and convenience (8) Moisture or damp
(2) Dimensional stability prevention
(3) Durability (9) Security against
(4) Economy burglary
(5) Fire Protection (10) Sound insulation
(6) Heat or thermal insulation (11) Strength and stability
(7) Light and ventilation (12) Termite Control
Important Building Components
(1) Foundation (3) Superstructure
(2) Plinth
QUESTIONS 10

Chapter 11 PLANNING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

11-1. General
11-2. Planning of residential buildings
(1) Living area (3) Service area
(2) Sleeping area
11-3. Furniture units and its arrangement
11-4. Requirements of modern
residential units
11-4-1. Bath and/or w.c.
(1) Door and it position (5) Shower and water tap
(2) Floor slope position
(3) Drain trap placement (6) Aspect, location and
(4) Fixtures placement ventilation position
11-4-2. Bedroom
11-4-3. Children room
11-4-4. Dining room
11-4-5. Drawing room
11-4-6. Garage
11-4-7. Kitchen
11-4-8. Library or Study room
11-4-9. Living room
11-4-10.Music or recreation room
11-4-11.Open chowk and passages
(1) Open chowk (2) Passages
11-4-12.Rooms for servants
11-4-13.Spacious dressing rooms
11-4-14.Stair
11-4-15.Store
11-4-16.Swimming pool
11-4-17.Verandah
11-5. Types of residential buildings
11-5-1. Rural house
(1) Typical Rural house (2) Rural row house
11-5-2. Detached buildings or bungalows
(1) Single storeyed residential bungalow
(2) Two storeyed residential bungalow
(3) A small modern residential bungalow having ground
floor, first floor and second floor
(4) A modern residential bungalow with basement, ground
floor, mezzanine floor, first floor and partly second floor
11-5-3. Semi-detached

(1) Single storeyed semi-detached building
(2) Two storeyed semi-detached buildings
(3) Two storeyed modern semi-detached buildings
11-5-4. Flats or apartments
(1) Two BHK (Bedroom-Hall-Kitchen fla
(2) Three BHK (Bedroom-Hall-Kitchen flat
(3) Duplex flat
11-5-5. Row houses
(1) A row house scheme for middle income group (MIG)
(2) A row house scheme in which ground floor and first
floor are occupied by different families
(3) A modern row house
QUESTIONS 11

Chapter 12 PLANNING OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES

12-1. General
(1) Factory buildings or engineering workshops
(2) Godown and warehouses
(3) Welfare buildings
12-2. Planning aspects
(1) Functional aspect (5) Number of floors
(2) Lighting (6) Site conditions
(3) Materials of construction (7) Ventilation
(4) Mechanical layout
12-3. Requirements of big industrial units
(1) Canteen (6) Mechanical aid
(2) Cloak-room (7) Office
(3) Drinking water (8) Sanitary block
(4) Entrance (9) Storage
(5) Loading and unloading platforms
12-4. Industrial structures
12-5. Industrial townships or estates
(1) Layout (4) Site
(2) Management (5) Size
(3) Service and amenities
QUESTIONS 12

Chapter 13 PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS

13-1. General
(1) Construction details (3) Structural details
(2) Planning details
13-2. Types of public buildings
(1) Assembly buildings (5) Institutional buildings
(2) Business buildings (6) Recreation buildings
(3) Educational buildings (7) Transportation buildings
(4) Health buildings (8) Worship buildings
13-3. Bank
(1) Banking space (5) Sanitary units
(2) Public space (6) Staff facilities
(3) Safe deposit vaults (7) Computer system and
(4) Store and record room UPS room
13-4. Bus station
(1) Canteen and stalls (3) Parking of buses
(2) Offices and (4) Repairing facilities
administrative units (5) Waiting halls
(1) General facilities
(2) Facilities for the passengers
(3) Facilities for bus station staff and drivers-conductors .
(4) Bus depot
13-5. Club house
(1) Internal amenities (2) External amenities
13-6. Commercial centre or office building
(1) Location (4) Parking
(2) Markets (5) Stores
(3) Offices
13-7. Hospital
(1) Administrative block (6) Parking facilities
(2) Infectious diseases (7) Pathology department
(3) Medical college (8) Radiology department
(4) Mortuary (9) Staff quarters
(5) Out-patient department (10)Wards
(O.P.D.)
13-8. Hostel

(1) Hostels for students
(2) Hostels for tourists or general public or working men/women
13-9. Hotel
(1) Bed rooms (4) Parking facilities
(2) Ground floor (5) Various other amenities
(3) Lift
13-10. Library
(1) Administrative department (4) Reading room
(2) Entrance (5) Stack room
(3) Location (6) Other necessaries
13-11. Post office
(1) Public space (4) Telephone booth
(2) Working space (5) Residential
(3) Sorting room accommodation
13-12. School building
(1) Class rooms (3) Location
(2) Group of activities (4) Other amenities
13-13. Temple
13-14. Theatre
(1) Auditorium (6) Projection room
(2) Box office (7) Restaurant
(3) Foyers and lobbies (8) Sanitary units
(4) Manager’s room (9) Stage
(5) Parking facilities
13-15. Town hall
QUESTION 13

Chapter 14 MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

14-1. General
14-2. Agencies of building trade
(1) Responsibilities of the architect or engineer
(2) Responsibilities of the contractor
(3) Responsibilities of the owner
14-3. Boulevards
14-4. External finishes
(1) Sand-faced finish (4) Smooth-cast finish
(2) Pebble-dash or (5) Depeter finish
dry-dash finish
(3) Rough-cast finish (6) Scrapped finish
14-5. House drainage
14-6. Landscape architecture
(1) General
(2) Objects or purposes of landscape architecture
(3) Salient features of landscape architecture
(4) Advantages of landscaping
(5) Disadvantages of landscaping
14-7. Master plan or development plan of a town
(1) General
(2) Objects of master plan or development plan
(3) Necessity of master plan or development plan
(4) Data to be collected
(5) Drawings to be prepared
(6) Features of development plan
(7) Planning standards
14-8. Neighbourhood planning
(1) General (4) Features of
(2) Principles of planning neighbourhood unit
(3) Importance
14-9. Parks
(1) General (4) Park systems
(2) Types of recreation (5) Park design
(3) Location of urban green spaces
14-10. Parkways
14-11. Playgrounds
14-12. Pipes for conveyance of water
(1) Asbestos cement pipes (6) Lead pipes
(2) Cast-iron pipes (7) Plastic pipes
(3) Cement concrete pipes (8) Steel pipes
(4) Copper pipes (9) Wood pipes
(5) Galvanized iron pipes (10)Wrought-iron pipes
14-13. R.C.C. Floors
14-14. Requirements of a good stair

(1) Design of layout (3) Materials and
(2) Treads and risers workmanship
(4) Width (8) Single step
(5) Pitch (9) Winders
(6) Headroom (10) Handrail
(7) Flight (11) Location
14-15. Sanitary fittings
(1) Bath tubs (5) Urinals
(2) Drinking fountains (6) Wash basin
(3) Flushing cisterns (7) Water closets
(4) Sinks
14-16. Sheets for pitched roof coverings
(1) Asbestos cement sheets (2) Galvanized iron sheets
14-17. Slums
(1) General (6) Slum clearance and
(2) Causes of slums rehousing
(3) Characteristics of slums (7) Prevention of slum
(4) Effects of slums formation
(5) Slum clearance
14-18. Storage of water
(1) Underground water storage tanks
(2) Overhead water storage tanks
14-19. Strong-room or vault construction
(1) Walls, floor and ceiling (3) Doors and windows
(2) Grills
14-20. Town planning
(1) General
(2) Objects of town planning
(3) Economic justification for town plannin
(4) Principles of town planning
(5) Necessity of town planning (6) Origin of towns
14-20-1.Growth of towns
Reasons to stay close to urban areas
14-20-2.Growth of towns according to origin
(1) Natural growth (2) Planned growth
14-20-3.Growth of towns according to direction
(1) Horizontal growt (2) Vertical growth
14-20-4.Forms of planning
(1) Local planning (4) National planning
(2) Country planning (5) International planning
(3) Regional planning
14-20-5.Planning of a modern town
14-20-6.Town planning in ancient India
(1) Ayodhya (3) Takshasila
(2) Patliputra
14-21. Types of floorings
14-21-1.Factors affecting choice of flooring material
(1) Appearance (7) Fire resistance
(2) Cleaning (8) Hardness
(3) Comfort (9) Maintenance
(4) Cost (10) Noise
(5) Damp resistance (11) Slipperiness
(6) Durability
14-21-2.Materials used for flooring
(1) Asphalt (9) Moorum
(2) Brick (10) Mud
(3) Concrete (11) Plastic
(4) Cork (12) Rubber
(5) Glass (13) Stone
(6) Linoleum (14) Terrazzo
(7) Magnesite (15) Tile
(8) Marble (16) Timber
14-22. Water requirements
14-23. Zoning
(1) Danger from fire
(2) Future development
(3) General amenities
(4) Health of community
(5) Population distribution
(6) Public utility services
QUESTIONS 14

PART II : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING

Chapter 15 COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING

15-1. Introduction
15-2. Computer
15-2-1. Organisation of a computer
15-3. Computer hardware for cad
15-3-1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
(1) Mother Board (4) Processor
(2) Hard disk (5) Graphics card
(3) RAM (Random Access (6) LAN card
Memory (7) Bios chip
15-3-2. Monitor or visual display unit (VDU)
15-3-3. Input devices
(1) Keyboard (5) Joystick
(2) Keypad (6) Tablet
(3) Digitizer (7) Touchscreen
(4) Trackball
15-3-4. Output devices
(1) Printers
(2) Plotters
(3) External/Removable Storage device
(4) Tape
(5) Computer output microfilm
(6) CRT display with light pen
15-3-5. Mouse
15-4. CAD software
Features of CAD softwares
(1) Modelling and Drafting (4) Modularity
(2) Ease of use (5) Low maintenance cost
(3) Flexibility
15-5. Computer aided drafting
15-6. AutoCAD
15-6-1. Hardware required for AutoCAD 2015/2016
15-6-2. Classic and ribbon screen layout of AutoCAD 2015/2016
15-6-3. Function keys
15-6-4. Drawing entities
(1) Setting limits of drawing area
(2) Draw commands
(3) Zoom command
(4) Object snap
(5) Object Selection Method
(6) Modify commands
(7) File handling commands
(8) Text commands
(9) Symbol library (block, wblock and insert)
15-7. Two dimensional drawings
15-8. 3D Solid Modelling
15-8-1. Standard 3D shapes based solids
15-8-2. Profile based solids
15-9. Commands to generate profile based 3D solids
(1) VPOINT command
(2) UCS Command
(3) SHADEMODE
(4) REGION command
(5) EXTRUDE command
(6) REVOLVE command
(7) BOOLEAN operations
(8) 3DARRAY command
(9) FILLETEDGE
(10) CHAMFEREDGE
(11) ROTATE3D command
(12) MIRROR3D command
(13) SLICE command
(14) LOFT command
(15) SWEEP command
(16) SHELL option of SOLIDEDIT command
15-10. Three dimensional drawings
QUESTIONS 15

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Index

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